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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-06-17
    Description: Primitive basalts are rarely found in arcs. The active NW Rota-1 volcano in the Mariana arc has erupted near-primitive lavas, which we have sampled with ROV Hyper-Dolphin (HPD). Samples from the summit (HPD480) and eastern flank (HPD488) include 17 magnesian basalts (51–52 wt % SiO 2 ) with 7·5–9·5 wt % MgO and Mg-number of 61–67, indicating little fractionation. Olivine phenocrysts are as magnesian as Fo 93 and contain 0·4 wt % NiO; the Cr/(Cr + Al) values of spinels are mostly 0·5–0·8, indicating equilibrium with depleted mantle. There are three petrographic groups, based on phenocryst populations: (1) cpx–olivine basalt (COB); (2) plagioclase–olivine basalt (POB); (3) porphyritic basalt. Zr/Y and Nb/Yb are higher in POB (3·1–3·2 and 1·2–1·5, respectively) than in COB (Zr/Y = 2·8–3·0 and Nb/Yb = 0·7–0·9), suggesting that POB formed from lower degrees of mantle melting, or that the COB mantle source was more depleted. On the other hand, COB have Ba/Nb (70–80) and Th/Nb (0·4–0·5) that are higher than for POB (Ba/Nb = 30–35 and Th/Nb = 0·1–0·2), and also have steeper light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched patterns. Moreover, COB have enriched 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd, and higher Pb isotope values, suggesting that COB has a greater subduction component than POB. 176 Hf/ 177 Hf between COB and POB are similar and Hf behavior in COB and POB is similar to that of Zr, Y and HREE, suggesting that Hf is not included in the subduction component, which produced the differences between COB and POB. The calculated primary basaltic magmas of NW Rota-1 volcano (primary COB and POB magmas) indicate segregation pressures of 2–1·5 GPa (equivalent to 65–50 km depth). These magmas formed by 24–18% melting of mantle peridotite having Mg-number ~89·5. Diapiric ascent of hydrous peridotite mixed heterogeneously with sediment melts may be responsible for the NW Rota-1 basalts. These two basalt magma types are similar to those found at Sumisu and Torishima volcanoes in the Izu–Bonin arc, with COB representing wetter and POB representing drier magmas, where subduction zone-derived melt components are coupled with the water contents.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3530
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2415
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-07-13
    Description: To clarify the characteristics and generation process of black auroras, we investigated 13 black auroral events using simultaneous imaging and particle data from the Reimei satellite obtained between November 2005 and October 2006. The formation and motion of black auroras were determined from successive monochromatic auroral images around the satellite's magnetic footprints, while the auroral intensities at the footprints were compared with precipitating electrons. We found that a number of small-scale deficiencies were embedded in precipitating electrons from the central plasma sheet with energies greater than 2–7 keV and that each deficiency corresponded exactly to black arcs and black patches at the magnetic footprint. Therefore black arcs and black patches are not associated with a field-aligned potential (such as a divergent potential structure) but probably originate from pitch angle scattering. In the black auroral region, low-energy (2–5 keV) inverted V–type downward electrons (spanning channels that are several tens of kilometers wide) often appear to overlap with high-energy (several keV) plasma sheet electrons. Drifting black patches were also observed. We estimated the speed and direction of the drift by minimum mean squared error analysis.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-12-14
    Description: Pagan is one of the largest volcanoes along the Mariana arc volcanic front. It has a maximum elevation of 570 m (Mt. Pagan), but its submarine flanks descend to 2000–3000 m below sea level, and are unexplored. Bathymetric mapping and ROV Hyper-Dolphin dives (HPD1147 and HPD1148) on the submarine NE and SW flanks of Pagan were carried out during cruise NT10-12 of R.V. Natsushima in July 2010. There are no systematic compositional differences between subaerial lavas reported in the literature and differentiated submarine lavas collected in HPD1148, with 〈7 wt % MgO, suggesting they are derived from the same magmatic system. However, these differentiated lavas show complexities including magma mixing; thus we concentrate on magnesian submarine lavas (〉7 wt % MgO). Twenty least-fractionated basalts (48·5–50 wt % SiO 2 ) collected during HPD1147 extend to higher MgO (10–11 wt %) and Mg# (66–70) than the subaerial lavas. Olivine (up to Fo 94 ) and spinel (Cr# up to 0·8) compositions suggest that these Pagan primitive magmas formed from high degrees of mantle melting. Two basalt types can be distinguished based on their geochemistry at similar (10–11 wt %) MgO; these erupted recently, 500 m apart. Both contain clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts and are referred to as COB1 and COB2. Lower TiO 2 , FeO, Na 2 O, K 2 O, incompatible trace element abundances, and Nb/Yb suggest that COB1 formed from higher degrees of mantle melting. In addition, light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and higher Th/Nb in COB2 contrast with LREE depletion and lower Th/Nb in COB1. Higher Ba/Th and Ba/Nb and lower Th/Nb indicate that the main subduction addition in COB1 was dominated by hydrous fluid, whereas that in COB2 was dominated by sediment melt. Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotopes are also consistent with this interpretation. These observations suggest that the subduction component responsible for the greater degree of melting of the COB1 source was mostly hydrous fluid. The origin of such different metasomatic agents resulted in different primary magmas forming in the same volcano. Both hydrous fluid and sediment melt components may have unmixed from an originally homogeneous supercritical fluid in or above the subducting slab below the volcanic front. These may have been added separately to the mantle wedge peridotite (mantle diapir) and resulted in two neighboring but completely different primary magmas from the same diapir. Moreover, these primitive lavas suggest that even for intra-oceanic arcs assimilation–fractional crystallization is inevitable when these magmas evolve in the crust and, in addition, that phlogopite is present in their mantle residue and thus played an important role in their genesis.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3530
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2415
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-05-18
    Description: Initial subduction-related boninitic magmatism occurred between 48 and 44 Ma in the Izu–Bonin–Mariana (IBM) arc. High-Mg adakites and low-Ca boninites have been dredged from the Bonin Ridge fore-arc seamount. Whole-rock 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages suggest that the boninite (44·0 ± 1·4 Ma) and adakite (43·1 ± 1·0 and 40·8 ± 0·8 Ma) magmatism overlapped, or that the adakite magmatism occurred slightly later than the boninite magmatism. The low-Ca boninites are high-Mg andesites and exhibit U-shaped rare earth element (REE) patterns with an elevated average Mg# of 0·78 [Mg# = Mg/(Mg + Fe) molar ratio] and Ni content of 667 ppm. The high-Mg adakites are andesitic to dacitic in composition; they exhibit markedly high Sr contents and low Y contents and are highly enriched in light REE but depleted in heavy REE, with an average Mg# of 0·79 and Ni content of 433 ppm. A geochemical mass-balance model (Arc Basalt Simulator Version 3) indicates that both magma types could be generated by partial melting of a depleted mantle source fluxed by water-rich slab-derived melts in a hot subduction environment, comparable with the present-day South Chile (ridge subduction) or Southwest Japan (young slab subduction) arcs. An extremely high slab melt flux of 22% is required for the formation of the high-Mg adakite, whereas a low flux of 3% is sufficient for the low-Ca boninite. The low-Ca boninite requires a high-temperature shallow slab (854°C, 2·7 GPa on average), consisting of altered oceanic crust of the Pacific plate and volcaniclastic sediments from HIMU seamounts, and high-temperature shallow mantle melting (1216°C, 0·8 GPa) of depleted Indian mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-type mantle. These modelled conditions are consistent with the occurrence of hot shallow mantle wedge melting in the initial subduction zone at the boundary between Pacific- and Indian-type mantle domains, as suggested by previous studies. In contrast, high-Mg adakite requires a higher temperature and deeper slab (929°C, 4·1 GPa), with the same slab components and slightly deeper but less hot melting (1130°C, 1·1 GPa) of HIMU-type depleted mantle, to satisfy the low Hf isotope ratios. This may occur because of the subsequent cooling of the mantle wedge by the establishment of the subduction system after the boninite magmatism and involvement of a small volume of an isotopically enriched mantle source embedded in the Indian-type mantle. The petrogenetic conditions provide constraints for reconstructing the tectonic settings of the early IBM arc. The hot subduction model would be consistent with the tectonic models with regard to the initiation of subduction associated with fore-arc spreading; this allowed the upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle to generate slab melts from the old Pacific plate slab and hot shallow mantle melting by slab melt fluxing for both boninite and adakite activities.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3530
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2415
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-12-21
    Description: It has long been thought that the low-K tholeiitic (TH) and medium-K calc-alkaline (CA) lavas in the NE Japan arc were produced by fractional crystallization from mantle-derived basalt magmas, and that the latter formed from mixing of mafic and felsic magmas, both derived from a common primary TH basalt through fractionation. An alternative view was recently proposed on the basis of Sr isotope microanalysis of plagioclase phenocrysts from the Zao volcano, suggesting that (1) the low-K TH basaltic andesites formed by melting of lower crustal amphibolite and that (2) the medium-K CA basalts to andesites formed by mixing of mantle-derived basalt and crustal TH melts. To investigate further the origin of the ‘primary’ low-K TH and medium-K CA basalts, we investigated basalts and andesites from Azuma volcano. Azuma is a Quaternary eruption center at the volcanic front in the NE Japan arc that has erupted two types of basalt: (1) radiogenic-Sr ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0·7058–0·7062) low-K TH basalt lavas without evidence of magma mixing and assimilation; (2) unradiogenic-Sr ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0·7039–0·7041) medium-K CA basalt lavas with subtle evidence for magma mixing. Associated intermediate lavas are voluminous and are all (3) mildly radiogenic-Sr ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0·7044–0·7055) medium-K andesites, all of which have CA affinities with evidence for rigorous magma mixing but no crustal assimilation. The low-K TH basalt has an isotopic composition similar to that of crustal granitoids beneath Azuma and has a composition indicating that it potentially formed from a high-degree lower crustal amphibolite melt. The medium-K CA basalt has a basaltic groundmass with Mg-rich olivine (Fo 89 ) and calcic plagioclase phenocrysts (An 90 ) and the most unradiogenic Sr ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0·7037–0·7038), suggesting that it originated from a primary mantle melt. Major and trace element microanalysis of the basaltic groundmass indicates that the primary magma composition is close to high-K. We conclude that the mantle-derived basalt at Azuma is the result of a high- to medium-K magma that was later mixed with a low-K TH basalt melt from the amphibolitic lower crust to form medium-K CA basalts and andesites. This supports the view of a lower crustal origin of the low-K TH basalts and simultaneously requires a reappraisal of the origin of the across-arc variation in K contents of the mantle-derived primary arc basalts, as the high- to medium-K CA basalt is geochemically fairly similar to the high-K rear-arc basalt in the NE Japan arc.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3530
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2415
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-02-09
    Description: Major and trace element and Sr–Nd–Pb isotope data for whole-rocks and major element data for minerals within basalt samples from the Chugaryeong volcano, an intra-plate back-arc volcanic centre in the central part of the Korean Peninsula, are used to address the process of magma genesis in the deep back-arc region of eastern Asia. There are two lava flow units at Chugaryeong volcano: the Chongok (0·50 Ma) and the Chatan (0·15 Ma) basalts. These basalts have similar MgO (9·1–10·4 wt %) but exhibit differences in their major and trace element and isotope compositions. The Chongok basalt has higher TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, K 2 O, P 2 O 5 , Cr 2 O 3 , large ion lithophile elements (LILE), high field strength elements (HFSE), and rare earth elements (REE), and lower FeO*, SiO 2 , and CaO than the Chatan basalt. In addition, the Chongok basalt has more radiogenic 143 Nd/ 144 Nd and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, and less radiogenic 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb than the Chatan basalt. Chi-square tests for the major elements indicate that crystal fractionation can explain the chemical variations within each basalt suite; intra-crustal processes, including crystal fractionation and assimilation of continental crust, cannot result in the formation of one basalt suite from the other. The Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic compositions of the Chongok and Chatan basalts plot on mixing hyperbolae between peridotite mantle xenoliths from the area and a fluid flux derived from a mixture of ancient and recent sediments. The trace element compositions of the estimated primary melts for the two basalt suites suggest different degrees of partial melting of a common enriched mantle source that was metasomatized by a Ba-, K-, Pb-, and Sr-rich fluid. The estimated degree of melting increased with time from ~7·5% for the Chongok basalt to ~10% for the Chatan basalt. The source mantle for the Chatan basalt is more enriched in Ba and Pb, indicating a greater fluid flux than for the Chongok basalt. This suggests that melting of the source mantle increased with time, sustained by an increased sediment-derived fluid flux from the deeper upper mantle.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3530
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2415
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-03-08
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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