Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Abstract The defensive secretion ofChrysomela lapponica larvae, which is produced by nine pairs of exocrine dorsal glands, has been chemically analyzed. TheC. lapponica larvae were kept in the laboratory on leaves of either birch (Betula pendula), alder (Alnus glutinosa), or willow (Salix fragilis). Larvae developed normally on birch and willow, whereas those on alder died within a few days. GC-MS analyses of the secretion of larvae on birch and willow revealed that the composition of this secretion differs distinctly from the known ones of several otherChrysomela species feeding exclusively on Salicaceae. In the exocrine secretion of larvae on birch, 69 compounds were identified, which included the main components isobutyric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, and esters of the two. Several of the esters have not been reported previously from nature. The alcoholic components of the esters may be hydrolysis products ofBetula glycosides. Most components of the secretion of larvae feeding on birch were also found in the secretion of larvae feeding on willow. In addition, major amounts of benzoic acid and salicylalcohol were present in the secretion of the larvae feeding on willow.C. lapponica obviously acquires salicylalcohol by hydrolysis of salicin from willow leaves. However, in contrast to otherChrysomela species,C. lapponica larvae oxidize only traces of salicylalcohol to salicylaldehyde. The repellent activity of single authentic compounds of the secretion of larvae feeding on birch and willow, respectively, was tested in laboratory bioassays with ants (Myrmica sabuleti). Biosynthetic pathways to some identified compounds are suggested and discussed under evolutionary and functional aspects.
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