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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 208 (1965), S. 131-133 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] RECENTLY, a number of authors have reported observations of volcanic dust in the southern hemisphere following the eruption of Mount Agung, Bali (8 S., 115 E.), on March 17, 1963. Hogg1 discussed several optical effects observed at Mount Stromlo and elsewhere. Moreno and Stock2 measured extinction ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 216 (1967), S. 250-251 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] During 1965, a study was made of the tropospheric and stratospheric concentrations of beryllium-7 over eastern Australia. Air filters were exposed at altitudes between 5 and 30 km. Air samples from lower heights (5 to 20 km) w^ere provided for analysis by the US Air Force which, at the time, was ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 224 (1969), S. 172-172 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Beryllium-7 has been sampled at Aspendale since 1966. This extensive body of data will be reported later. Between September 1967 and May 1968, air concentrations of sulphur-35 were also measured. Air was drawn through a paper-base "absolute" filter, effectively retaining all particles larger than ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: We have studied the sensitivity of health impacts from nuclear reactor accidents, as predicted by the CRAC2 computer code, to the following sources of uncertainty: (1) the model for plume rise, (2) the model for wet deposition, (3) the meteorological bin-sampling procedure for selecting weather sequences with rain, (4) the dose conversion factors for inhalation as affected by uncertainties in the particle size of the carrier aerosol and the clearance rates of radionuclides from the respiratory tract, (5) the weathering half-time for external ground-surface exposure, and (6) the transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchain pathways. Predicted health impacts usually showed little sensitivity to use of an alternative plume-rise model or a modified rain-bin structure in bin-sampling. Health impacts often were quite sensitive to use of an alternative wet-deposition model in single-trial runs with rain during plume passage, but were less sensitive to the model in bin-sampling runs. Uncertainties in the inhalation dose conversion factors had important effects on early injuries in single-trial runs. Latent cancer fatalities were moderately sensitive to uncertainties in the weathering half-time for ground-surface exposure, but showed little sensitivity to the transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchain pathways. Sensitivities of CRAC2 predictions to uncertainties in the models and parameters also depended on the magnitude of the source term, and some of the effects on early health effects were comparable to those that were due only to selection of different sets of weather sequences in bin-sampling.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Panofsky et al. (1977) have presented an analysis which seems to show a clear dependence of the dimensionless turbulence statistics Σ u /u * and Σv/u * on the planetary boundary-layer stability parameter z i/L. However it is possible that much of the apparent relationship results from artificial correlations introduced by the use of inter-related dimensionless parameters. Apparent dependencies of similar statistical quantities on z/L in the surface boundary layer might also be contaminated.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Measurements made as part of studies of the evolution of the planetary boundary layer (the “Sangamon” experiments of 1975 and 1976) are used to compare the surface eddy fluxes of heat and momentum over adjacent fields of soybeans and maize. Although the maize canopy was much taller and rougher than that of the soybeans, daytime eddy fluxes of momentum over the maize exceeded those over the soybeans by only about 35%, in good agreement with predictions based on PBL similarity theory. Heat flux was about 10% greater over the maize, probably as a consequence of greater evaporation over the soybeans. Infrared surface temperatures generally differed by less than 0.4 °C and net radiation by less than 10%. For the soybean canopy, the momentum displacement height was found to be located at approximately 90% of the crop height, and the roughness length was about 5%. The roughness length for sensible heat transfer was found to be 2–3% of the soybean canopy height. For the maize canopy, the momentum displacement height was about 60% of the crop height, and the roughness length about 7%.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Turbulence data for the International Turbulence Comparison Experiment (ITCE) held at Conargo, N.S.W. (35° 18′ S., 145° 10′ E.) during October, 1976 are analysed. The standard deviation % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiqado% hagaqbamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaakiaacMcadaahaaWcbeqaaiaa% igdacaGGVaGaaGOmaaaaaaa!3B93!\[(s'^2 )^{1/2} \] and covariance % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaa0aaaeaace% WG3bGbauaaceWGZbGbauaaaaaaaa!3809!\[\overline {w's'} \] measured by a number of instruments and instrument arrays have been compared to assess their field performance and calibration accuracy. Satisfactory agreement, i.e. typically 5% for % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikamaana% aabaGabm4CayaafaWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaaaakiaacMcadaah% aaWcbeqaaiaaigdacaGGVaGaaGOmaaaaaaa!3BA4!\[(\overline {s'^2 } )^{1/2} \] (except in humidity) and of the order of 20% for % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiqado% hagaqbamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaakiaacMcadaahaaWcbeqaaiaa% igdacaGGVaGaaGOmaaaaaaa!3B93!\[(s'^2 )^{1/2} \], was achieved, but only after consideration of: (1) Instrumental response at high frequencies. (2) Flow distortion induced by instruments and supporting structures. (3) Spatial separation of instruments used for covariance measurements. (4) Statistical errors associated with single point measurements over a finite averaging time, and with lateral separation of two sensor arrays being compared.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Boundary layer meteorology 3 (1972), S. 214-228 
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Even though propeller anemometers are found to give outputs which deviate from the desired cosine relationship by an amount which varies with wind speed, their overall performance is consistent with many atmospheric requirements. Their output per unit wind speed is a function of angle of attack, such that when used as sensors of the vertical or horizontal cross-wind components in the atmosphere, calibration factors may differ by as much as 30 % from those obtained in a normal wind-tunnel calibration procedure (in which wind velocity is parallel to the anemometer shaft). These characteristics are sufficiently important that great care should be taken in using these devices inu-v-w orthogonal arrays. For use in eddy-correlation equipment, it appears that it is best to vane-mount the horizontal sensor to ensure that the appropriate calibration factor is employed. The response lengths of propeller anemometers also vary with angle of attack. Nearθ=0 °, the axially-referred response length appears to depend linearly on cosθ, but nearθ=90 ° a dependence on cos1/2 θ fits the data. No strong effect of wind speed is found. Due to their limited response characteristics, these anemometers give rise to underestimates of the Reynolds stress measured near the surface. The extent of the loss is about 8 % when anemometers in good condition are employed at a height of 5m. Operation at a greater height would allow this error to be reduced. After exposure in the atmosphere for some time, the anemometers tend to respond more slowly and greater losses (of the order 25 %) can occur. Some improvement in performance is possible by the choice of a suitable spatial separation of the sensors.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Important questions concerning the turbulent exchange of atmospheric pollutants between the air and natural surfaces urgently require answers, but sensors for many important species are not yet sufficiently well developed for use with standard micrometeorological methods. There is need, therefore, to develop methods by which deficient sensors can be used in micrometeorological applications. There is also need to extend micrometeorological methods to circumstances which do not satisfy the conventional perfect-site constraints. Here, methods based upon the assumption of cospectral similarity are explored. Initial tests indicate that it is possible to estimate daytime turbulent fluxes with sensors giving response times considerably greater than the values normally quoted for eddy correlation (e.g., 5 s instead of 1 s), and to compute first-order corrections for the error resulting from the lack of detection of high-frequency turbulence. It is suggested that a similar method might be used to derive flux data in terrain more complex than can be handled by conventional micrometeorology. The techniques outlined here should be applied only with caution, but appear adequate to permit the use of deficient sensors in some circumstances, and good sensors over some micrometeorologically deficient terrain.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Boundary layer meteorology 53 (1990), S. 297-302 
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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