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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Washington, DC : United States Gov. Print. Off.
    Associated volumes
    Call number: SR 90.0002(1538-S)
    In: Professional paper
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: III, S-15 S.
    Series Statement: U.S. Geological Survey professional paper 1538-S
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : In order to assess the effects. of silvicultural and drainage practices on water quality it is necessary to understand their impacts on hydrology. The hydrology of a 340 ha artificially drained forested watershed in eastern North Carolina was studied for a five-year period (1988–92). Effects of soils, beds and changes in vegetation on water table depth, evapotranspiration (ET) and drainage outflows were analyzed. Total annual outflows from the watershed varied from 29 percent of the rainfall during the driest year (1990) when mostly mature trees were present to as much as 53 percent during a year of normal rainfall (1992) after about a third of the trees were harvested. Annual ET from the watershed, calculated as the difference between annual rainfall and outflow, varied from 76 percent of the calculated potential ET for a dry year to as much as 99 percent for a wet year. Average estimated ET was 58 percent of rainfall for the five-year period. Flow rates per unit area were consistently higher from a smaller harvested block (Block B - 82 ha) of the watershed than from the watershed as a whole. This is likely due to time lags, as drainage water flows through the ditch-canal network in the watershed, and to timber harvesting of the smaller gaged block.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: We provide a complete description of the characteristics of excitation and attenuation of the ground motion in the Lake Van region (eastern Turkey) using a data set that includes three-component seismograms from the 23 October 2011 Mw 7.1 Van earthquake, as well as its aftershocks. Regional attenuation and source scaling are parameterized to describe the observed ground motions as a function of distance, frequency, and magnitude. Peak ground velocities are measured in selected narrow frequency bands from 0.25 to 12.5 Hz; observed peaks are regressed to define a piecewise linear regional attenu- ation function, a set of excitation terms, and a set of site response terms. Results are modeled through random vibration theory (see Cartwright and Longuet-Higgins, 1956). In the log–log space, the regional crustal attenuation is modeled with a bilinear geo- metrical spreading g r characterized by a crossover distance at 40 km: g r ∝ r^−1 fits our results at short distances (r 〈 40 km), whereas g r ∝ r^−0.3 is better at larger distances (40 〈 r 〈 200 km). A frequency-dependent quality factor, Q f =100( f/fref)^ 0:43 (in which fref 1.0 Hz), is coupled to the geometrical spreading. Because of the inherent trade-off of the excitation/attenuation parameters (Δσ and κ), their specific values strongly depend on the choice made for the stress drop of the smaller earthquakes. After choosing a Brune stress drop ΔσBrune 4 MPa at Mw 3:5, we were able to define (1) an effective high frequency, distance- and mag- nitude-independent roll-off spectral parameter, κeff = 0:03 s and (2) a size-dependent stress-drop parameter, which increases with moment magnitude, from ΔσBrune 4 MPa at Mw 3.5 to ΔσBrune 20 MPa at Mw 7.1. The set of parameters mentioned here may be used in order to predict the earthquake-induced ground motions expected from future earthquakes in the region surrounding Lake Van.
    Description: Published
    Description: 4T. Fisica dei terremoti e scenari cosismici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: open
    Keywords: Earthquake-induced ground motion, Lake Van, Crustal attenuation ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.04. Ground motion
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: By using small-to-moderate-sized earthquakes located within ~200 km of San Francisco, we characterize the scaling of the ground motions for frequencies ranging between 0.25 and 20 Hz, obtaining results for geometric spreading, Q(f), and site parameters using the methods of Mayeda et al. (2005) and Malagnini et al. (2004). The results of the analysis show that, throughout the Bay Area, the average regional attenuation of the ground motion can be modeled with a bilinear geometric spreading function with a 30 km crossover distance, coupled to an anelastic function ! exp " #fr $Q( f ) % & ' ( ) * , where: Q(f)=180 f 0.42. A body-wave geometric spreading, g(r)= r -1.0, is used at short hypocentral distances (r 〈 30 km), whereas g(r)= r -0.6 fits the attenuation of the spectral amplitudes at hypocentral distances beyond the crossover. The frequency-dependent site effects at 12 of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) stations were evaluated in an absolute sense using coda-derived source spectra. Our results show: i) the absolute site response for frequencies ranging between 0.3 Hz and 2.0 Hz correlate with independent estimates of the local magnitude residuals (dML) for each of the stations; ii) moment-magnitudes (MW) derived from our path and sitecorrected spectra are in excellent agreement with those independently derived using fullwaveform modeling as well as coda-derived source spectra; iii) we use our weak-motionbased relationships to predict motions region wide for the Loma Prieta earthquake, well above the maximum magnitude spanned by our data set, on a completely different set of stations. Results compare well with measurements taken at specific NEHRP site classes; iv) an empirical, magnitude-dependent scaling was necessary for the Brune stress parameter in order to match the large magnitude spectral accelerations and peak ground velocities with our weak-motion-based model.
    Description: Submitted
    Description: open
    Keywords: Ground motion ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.04. Ground motion
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: manuscript
    Format: 6679919 bytes
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: By using small-to-moderate-sized earthquakes located within ~200 km of San Francisco, we characterize the scaling of the ground motions for frequencies ranging between 0.25 and 20 Hz, obtaining results for geometric spreading, Q(f), and site parameters using the methods of Mayeda et al. (2005) and Malagnini et al. (2004). The results of the analysis show that, throughout the Bay Area, the average regional attenuation of the ground motion can be modeled with a bilinear geometric spreading function with a 30 km crossover distance, coupled to an anelastic function exp(-pi*f*r/V*Q(f)) , where: Q(f)=180f^0.42. A body-wave geometric spreading, g(r)= r^-1.0, is used at short hypocentral distances (r 〈 30 km), whereas g(r)= r^-0.6 fits the attenuation of the spectral amplitudes at hypocentral distances beyond the crossover. The frequency-dependent site effects at 12 of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) stations were evaluated in an absolute sense using coda-derived source spectra. Our results show: i) the absolute site response for frequencies ranging between 0.3 Hz and 2.0 Hz correlate with independent estimates of the local magnitude residuals (dML) for each of the stations; ii) moment-magnitudes (MW) derived from our path and site-corrected spectra are in excellent agreement with those independently derived using full-waveform modeling as well as coda-derived source spectra; iii) we use our weak-motion-based relationships to predict motions region wide for the Loma Prieta earthquake, well above the maximum magnitude spanned by our data set, on a completely different set of stations. Results compare well with measurements taken at specific NEHRP site classes; iv) an empirical, magnitude-dependent scaling was necessary for the Brune stress parameter in order to match the large magnitude spectral accelerations and peak ground velocities with our weak-motion-based model.
    Description: Published
    Description: 843-862
    Description: 4.1. Metodologie sismologiche per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: partially_open
    Keywords: ground motion San Francisco site effects ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.04. Ground motion
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Based only on weak-motion data, we carried out a combined study on region-specific source scaling and crustal attenuation in the Central Apennines (Italy). Our goal was to obtain a reappraisal of the existing predictive relationships for the ground motion, and to test them against the strong-motion data [peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and spectral acceleration (SA)] gathered during the Mw 6.15 L’Aquila earthquake (2009 April 6, 01:32 UTC). The L’Aquila main shockwas not part of the predictive study, and the validation test was an extrapolation to one magnitude unit above the largest earthquake of the calibration data set. The regional attenuation was determined through a set of regressions on a data set of 12 777 high-quality, high-gain waveforms with excellent S/N ratios (4259 vertical and 8518 horizontal time histories). Seismograms were selected from the recordings of 170 foreshocks and aftershocks of the sequence (the complete set of all earthquakes with ML ≥ 3.0, from 2008 October 1 to 2010 May 10). All waveforms were downloaded from the ISIDe web page (http://iside.rm.ingv.it/iside/standard/index.jsp), a web site maintained by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). Weak-motion data were used to obtain a moment tensor solution, as well as a coda-based moment-rate source spectrum, for each one of the 170 events of the L’Aquila sequence (2.8 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.15). Source spectra were used to verify the good agreement with the source scaling of the Colfiorito seismic sequence of 1997–1998 recently described by Malagnini et al. (2008). Finally, results on source excitation and crustal attenuationwere used to produce the absolute site terms for the 23 stations located within ∼80 km of the epicentral area. The complete set of spectral corrections (crustal attenuation and absolute site effects) was used to implement a fast and accurate tool for the automatic computation of moment magnitudes in the Central Apennines.
    Description: Published
    Description: 325-337
    Description: 4.1. Metodologie sismologiche per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: reserved
    Keywords: Earthquake ground motions ; central Italy ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.99. General or miscellaneous
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: The Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile on 2010 February 27, and was followed by thousands of aftershocks. In this study, we modeled 172 aftershocks recorded by more than 100 temporary broadband stations deployed between March 2010 and January 2011. Each of these earthquakes is characterized by a well-determined hypocentral location and well-constrained focal mechanism and moment magnitudes in the range M 3.7 to 6.2. Most of these earthquakes are characterized by shallow, eastward-dipping, thrust-type focal mechanisms consistent with faulting at or near the plate interface, where the Nazca plate is subducting beneath the South America plate at approximately 74 mm/yr. This study provides a unique opportunity to quantify high-frequency earthquake ground motion in a subduction zone due to the quality and quantity of observations in the frequency and distance range of 0.2-30 Hz and 40-500 km, respectively. The analysis was done using a two-step modeling procedure. A regression is performed to characterize source duration and excitation, source-receiver distance dependence, and station site effects. A point source forward model is then constructed in terms of geometrical spreading, duration, site effects and source scaling to match the regression results. This procedure provides the necessary point source parameters for stochastic finite-fault modeling of peak ground motions for future earthquakes in this subduction zone.
    Description: Published
    Description: Trieste
    Description: 4T. Fisica dei terremoti e scenari cosismici
    Description: open
    Keywords: seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: Poster session
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: On May 20 2012, an event of Ml 5.9 (Mw 5.6) stuck the southem edge of the Po river plain (Pianura Padana). The earthquake was preceded by a foreshock of Ml 4.1 (Mw 3.8), less than 3 hours before the Mw 5.6 main. Hypocentral depths were 6.3 km for both events. Centroid depths were 5 and 6 km, respectively. The activated fault was a reverse one, dipping to the south. Then a complex seismic sequence started, in which more than six earthquakes with Ml greater than 5 stuck the area, the last one on June 3, 2012. Aftershocks delineated a 50 km long and 10-15 km wide zone, approximately elongated in the WE direction. More than 2100 events were located between May 19 and June 25 2012 by the INGV National Seismic Network, 80 of them with Ml greater than 3.5. The damage due to the Ml 5+ earthquakes was widespread, as they severely hit historical towns and industrial infrastructures. However, a striking inconsistency exists between the relatively small moment magnitudes and the corrisponding high level of damage. In order to define a velocity structure for the crust beneath the Pianura Padana, to be used for waveform inversion of moment tensors, we gathered all the geophysical and geological information available for the area. The model is characterized by very thick and shallow Quaternary sediments, to be used for the inversion of broadband waveforms for moment tensor (MT) solutions, in the frequency band between 0.02-0.1 Hz. We calculated moment tensors for 20 events down to Mw~3.2. We demonstrate how surface waves dominate the seismograms in the region, which may have played a major role in enhancing the damage to industrial structures observed in the epicentral area. Synthetic seismograms computed using the developed model well reproduced the anomalous durations of the ground motion observed in Pianura Padana, also highlighting important implications for the seismic hazard in the entire area. The present seismic hazard assessment as well as the size of the historical earthquakes in the region (and so their recurrence times), may need to be re-evaluated in the light of this new results.
    Description: Published
    Description: Roma
    Description: 3T. Pericolosità sismica e contributo alla definizione del rischio
    Description: open
    Keywords: seismology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: Poster session
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-04-04
    Description: Inadequate seismic design codes can be dangerous, particularly when they underestimate the true hazard. In this study we use data from a sequence of moderate-sized earthquakes in northeast Italy to validate and test a regional wave propagation model which, in turn, is used to under- stand some weaknesses of the current design spectra. Our velocity model, while regionalized and somewhat ad hoc, is consistent with geophysical observations and the local geology. In the 0.02–0.1 Hz band, this model is validated by using it to calculate moment tensor solutions of 20 earth- quakes (5.6 MW 3.2) in the 2012 Ferrara, Italy, seismic sequence. The seismic spectra observed for the relatively small main shock significantly exceeded the design spectra to be used in the area for critical structures. Observations and synthetics reveal that the ground motions are dominated by long-duration surface waves, which, apparently, the design codes do not adequately anticipate. In light of our results, the present seismic hazard assessment in the entire Pianura Padana, including the city of Milan, needs to be re-evaluated. Citation: Malagnini, L., R. B. Herrmann, I. Munafò, M. Buttinelli, M. Anselmi, A. Akinci, and E. Boschi (2012), The 2012 Ferrara seismic sequence: Regional crustal structure, earthquake sources, and seismic hazard, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19302, doi:10.1029/ 2012GL053214.
    Description: Published
    Description: L19302
    Description: 4T. Fisica dei terremoti e scenari cosismici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: open
    Keywords: earthquake sources, seismic hazard ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-02-24
    Description: The aim of this study is to test the stability of moment tensor solutions for crustal earthquakes in the Calabro-Peloritan area (southern Italy). We used waveforms recorded by the Italian National Seismic Network managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and the CAT-SCAN (Calabria Apennine Tyrrhenian - Subduction Collision Accretion Network) project. We computed the moment tensor solutions using the Cut And Paste (CAP) method. The technique allows the determination of the source depth, moment magnitude and focal mechanisms using a grid search technique. For the earthquakes investigated, we tried different station distributions and different velocity models. Results were also checked by computing the moment tensor solutions using the SLUMT grid-search method. Both methods (CAP and SLUMT) allow time shifts between synthetic and observed data in order to reduce the dependence of the solution on the assumed velocity model and on earthquake location errors. Comparisons have been made with the available published solutions. The final focal mechanisms were robustly determined. We show that the application of the CAP and SLUMT methods can provide good-quality solutions in a magnitude range not properly represented in the Italian national earthquake catalogues, and where the solutions estimated from Ponset polarities are often poorly constrained.
    Description: Published
    Description: 283-298
    Description: JCR Journal
    Description: open
    Keywords: moment tensor ; 04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.99. General or miscellaneous
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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