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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Apoptosis 5 (2000), S. 443-449 
    ISSN: 1573-675X
    Keywords: apoptosis ; autoimmunity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Apoptosis is a physiological form of cell death required to ensure that the rate of cell division is balanced by the rate of cell death in multicellular organisms. Dysregulation of apoptosis is associated with the pathogenesis of a wide array of diseases: cancer, neurodegeneration, autoimmunity, heart disease and others. In this review we collect arguments supporting a hypothesis of a dysregulated apoptosis leading to development of autoimmunity like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This notion is supported by occurence of known autoantigens in apoptotic blebs, in vitro findings of an increased rate of apoptotic lymphoblasts despite optimal cytokine stimulation combined with a defective in vitro clearance of apoptotic bodies by SLE phagocytes. Moreover, we and others could generate histone-specific lymphocytic cell lines from cells after activation with autologous apoptotic material. These lymphocytes could stimulate autologous B-lymphocytes to produce of anti-dsDNA antibodies, a diagnostic hallmark for SLE. Finally, antibodies against phospholipids like phosphatidylserine are often associated with systemic autoimmunopathies like SLE and others. Phosphatidylserine is exposed on apoptotic cells as early sign of programmed cell death and serves as phagocyte recognition molecule for apoptotic cells. Formation of immune complexes and deposition in tissues might lead to organ damage and disease. This scenario will be discussed in this review in detail.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Lymphatic vessels ; Mesentery ; Ultrastructure ; Histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die ableitenden Lymphgefäße im Mesenterium des Dünndarms männlicher weißer Ratten wurden elektronenmikroskopisch und histochemisch untersucht. Elektronenmikroskopisch findet sich ein lückenloses Endothel mit reichlich pinocytotischen Vesikeln. Eine Basalmembran ist im Klappenbereich durchgehend, sonst nur bruchstückweise vorhanden. Die darunter gelegene Bindegewebsschicht (Lamina propria interna) ist sehr unterschiedlich ausgeprägt. Die lichtoptische Einteilung in muskelstarke und muskelschwache (klappennahe) Abschnitte des Lymphangions läßt sich elektronenmikroskopisch bestätigen. Die zahlreichen membrannahen Vesikel der Muskelfasern sind bei Kontraktion in zahnartigen Fortsätzen angereichert. Auch beim Normaltier treten sog. „aktivierte“ Muskelzellen auf. Osmiophiles Material ist nach Fettfütterung zwischen den Muskelzellen und in der Lamina propria interna der Gefäßwand vorhanden, nicht dagegen in den Klappen. Der Kontakt zwischen den Muskelzellen erfolgt mittels fingerartiger Fortsätze. Endothel und Klappen sind frei von nervösen Elementen. Nervenendigungen und Axone sind zwischen den Muskelfasern nicht zu beobachten, hingegen ganz selten Ganglienzellen. Histochemisch sind im Endothel starke Aktivitäten der sauren Phosphatase und der Monoaminooxydase nachzuweisen, auch unspezifische Esterasen, ATP-ase sowie verschiedene Dehydrogenasen sind vorhanden. Cholinesterase, Cholindehydrogenase und alkalische Phosphatase fehlen. In der Media sind unspezifische Cholinesterase, unspezifische Esterasen, ATPase, Monoaminooxydase, Succinodehydrogenase und NAD-Diaphorase nachweisbar. Im einzelnen kann die Stärke der Aktivität einem bestimmten Abschnitt (muskelstark/muskelschwach) des Lymphangions zugeordnet werden. Damit ist eine Einteilung der Lymphangione in klappentragende und muskelmanschettenhaltige Anteile auch histochemisch möglich. Im Gegensatz zur Adventitia der Blutgefäße gibt die der Lymphgefäße keine Reaktion auf alkalische Phosphatase. Die dort reichlich vorhandenen Mastzellen sind Naphthol-AS-D-chloracetat-esterase positiv.
    Notes: Summary The large lymphatic vessels in the mesentery of male white rats were investigated with ultrastructural and histochemical methods. Electron micrographs show an uninterrupted simple endothelial layer, the individual cells of which are rich in pinocytotic vesicles. A distinct continous basement membrane is to be found only in the region of the valves, otherwise it is lacking over wide parts of the vessel wall. The so-called lamina propria interna differs greatly in its extent. Electron microscopy confirms the subdivision of the lymphangion into segments rich in muscle cells and others (in the area of the valves) which are less rich in them. Muscle cells contain numerous vesicles in close connection with the cell membrane which in contracted cells are to be found predominantly in toothlike projections. Also in the normal rat, so-called “activated” muscle cells are to be found. After a meal rich in fat, osmiophilic material can be seen between the muscle cells and in the lamina propria interna, however, not in the valves. Muscle cells are in contact with each other by finger-like processes. The endothelial layer and the valves are lacking nervous elements. There are no nerve endings and no axons between the muscle cells, but very rarely ganglion cells can be found. Histochemically, strong activities of acid phosphatase and MAO have been demonstrated in the endothelial layer. Unspecific esterases, ATP-ase and various dehydrogenases are also present, while cholinesterase, cholindehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase are lacking. In the media, unspecific esterases, unspecific cholinesterase, MAO, succinodehydrogenase and Naddiaphorase can be found. The intensity of enzymatic activities can be correlated to specific segments of the lymphangion. It is, therefore, possible to distinguish by histochemical methods the valve areas, which are poor in muscle cells, from the muscle-cuffs. In contrast to the blood vessels, the adventitia of the large lymphatics is alkaline-phosphatase negative. The mast cells, abundant in the adventitial layer, show α-Naphthol-AS-D-chloroacetate-esterase activity.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-9171
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Three examples for the application of time and temperature resolved X-ray diffraction for the investigation of solid state reactions and phase transitions are given. Samples were submitted to an isothermal temperature program or to stepwise heating/cooling, while diffraction patterns were measured continuously. The applications include the in situ identification of reaction products or phases, the determination of kinetic parameters, the observation of thermal expansion and the formation of layers.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Keywords: Best. von Aluminium in Eisen, Stahl ; Spektralphotometrie ; Aluminonmethode nach Extraktionen und Elektrolyse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das beschriebene photometrische Verfahren wurde für Al-Gehalte von 0,01–1,1% in Eisen, Stählen und Edelstählen ausgearbeitet und an Teststählen überprüft. Mit Hilfe einer Hg-Elektrolyse und schrittweise vorgenommenen Extraktionen der die Al-Bestimmung störenden Legierungsbestandteile (wie Fe, Mo, Cr, Cu, Co, Cd, Mo, Pb, Ni, Sb, Zn, Sn, Mn) wird das Aluminium mit 8-Hydroxychinolin bei pH 9 abgetrennt und nach einem HNO3/H2SO4-Aufschluß photometrisch nach der Aluminonmethode bestimmt.
    Notes: Abstract The method has been worked out for Al contents from 0.01 to 1.1% in iron, steels and alloy steels, and tested with standard reference materials. Aluminium is separated by 8-hydroxy-quinoline at pH 9 after Hg-electrolysis and step-wise pre-extraction of interfering constituents as Fe, Mo, Cr, Cu, Co, Cd, Mo, Pb, Ni, Sb, Zn, Sn, Mn. Finally the 8-hydroxy-quinoline extract is digested with nitric/sulphuric acid and aluminium is determined spectrophotometrically by the Aluminon method.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-9171
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The biological efficiency of a high purified A-homo-testosterone-acetate was tested on male mice. We found no inhibition of the gonadotropic partial-function of the anterior pituitary by the substance; and furthermore no substitution of testosterone deficit after castration was possible.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Three samples of anatase and one of rutile were studied. The surface of TiO2 is amphoteric in character. For pure anatase surfaces, the isoelectric point was found near pH 6.4; it is influenced by adsorbed impurities. Nearly half of the surface OH groups which were determined by deuterium exchange react fairly strongly acidic corresponding to a pKa of ca. 2.9. They are almost quantitatively neutralized by 5 · 10-3 M alkali or alkaline earth hydroxides; NH3 and methyl amines are chemisorbed by them as ammonium ions. Approximately the same quantity of Na+, Ca2+ or Ba2+ ions again is adsorbed from solutions of their hydroxides at higher concentrations. This is caused by weakly acidic functions the pK value of which is 12.7. The reaction of alkaline earth hydroxides with the acidic surface groups is equimolar. A quantity of Al3+ ions equimolar to the total OH population is adsorbed from basic aluminium chloride solutions.
    Notes: Drei Anatas-Präparate und ein Rutil wurden untersucht. Die TiO2-Oberfläche reagiert amphoter. Der isoelektrische Punkt der reinen Anatas-Oberfläche liegt bei pH 6,4; er wird durch adsorbierte Verunreinigungen beeinflußt. Etwa die Hälfte der durch Deuteriumaustausch nachgewiesenen OH-Gruppen ist relativ stark sauer, entsprechend einem pKs-Wert von etwa 2,9. Diese OH-Gruppen werden durch 5 · 10-3m Alkali- oder Erdalkalihydroxide nahezu vollständig neutralisiert, NH3 und Methylamine werden von ihnen als Ammoniumionen chemisorbiert. Noch einmal die gleiche Menge Na+ Ca2+ oder Ba2+-Ionen wird bei höheren Konzentrationen aus ihren Hydroxiden gebunden. Der pK-Wert der schwächer sauren Oberflächengruppen liegt bei 12,7. Erdalkalihydroxide reagieren mit den sauren Gruppen äquimolar. Aus basischen Aluminiumchloridlösungen wird die dem gesamten OH-Gehalt äquimolare Menge Al3+ absorbiert.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: On Hexagonal Perovskites with Cationic Vacancies. XXVII. Systems Ba4-xSrxBIIRe2□O12, Ba4B1-xIICaxRe2□O12, and Ba4-xLaxBIIRe2-xWx□O12 with BII = Co, NiIn the systems Ba4-xSrxBIIRe2□O12, Ba4B1-xIICaxRe2□O12 and Ba4-xLaxBIIRe2-xWx□O12 (BII = Co, Ni) hexagonal perovskites with a rhombohedral 12 L structure (general composition A4BM2□O12; sequence (hhcc)3; space group R&3macr;m) are observed. With the exception of Ba4NiRe2□O12 the octahedral net consists of BO6 single octahedra and M2□O12 face connected blocks (type 1). In type 2 (Ba4NiRe2□O12) the M ions are located in the single octahedra and in the center of the groups of three face connected octahedra. The two outer positions of the latter are occupied by B ions and vacancies in the ratio 1:1.The difference between type 1 and 2 are discussed by means of the vibrational and diffuse reflectance spectra.
    Notes: In den Systemen Ba4-xSrxBIIRe2□O12, Ba4B1-xIICaxRe2□O12 und Ba4-xLaxBIIRe2-xWx□O12 (BII = Co, Ni) treten hexagonale Perowskite mit rhomboedrischer 12 L-Struktur (allgemeine Zusammensetzung A4BM2□O12; Sequenz (hhcc)3; R.G. R&3macr;m) auf, deren Oktaedergerüst - mit Ausnahme von Ba4NiRe2□O12 - aus BO6-Einzeloktaedern und M2□O12-Dreiergruppen aufgebaut ist (Typ 1). Im Typ 2 (Ba4NiRe2□O12) befinden sich die M-Ionen dagegen in den Einzeloktaedern und im Zentrum des Dreierblocks, dessen beiden äußeren Positionen mit B-Kationen und Fehlstellen im Verhältnis 1:1 besetzt sind.Die Unterschiede zwischen Typ 1 und 2 werden an Hand der Schwingungsspektren und diffusen Reflexionsspektren diskutiert.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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