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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Decomposition ; Termites ; Cattle dung ; Pedoturbation ; Tropical pastures ; Soil restoration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Rates of dung decomposition and the associated accumulation of soil transported to the surface were compared for dung deposited during a dry and a wet season in a Costa Rican pasture. Average decomposition rates for the first 140 days after deposition were significantly lower for dung patches deposited at the beginning of the dry season than for patches deposited at the beginning of the wet season (0.73 vs. 1.50 g/day–1 on a dry weight basis). A strong linear relationship was found between dung removal and soil accumulation at the original soil surface, with an average of 2.0 g soil accumulated for every gram of dung which was removed. This relationship was not affected by deposition season. The lack of a seasonal difference, along with the relatively low decomposition rates during the wet season, were explained by the dominance of termites in the dung patches throughout the year. Evidence of dung beetle activity was never recorded during the dry season and was found in only 18 of the 45 dung patches recovered during the wet season.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Decomposition ; Termites ; Cattle dung ; Pedoturbation ; Tropical pastures ; Soil restoration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Rates of dung decomposition and the associated accumulation of soil transported to the surface were compared for dung deposited during a dry and a wet season in a Costa Rican pasture. Average decomposition rates for the first 140 days after deposition were significantly lower for dung patches deposited at the beginning of the dry season than for patches deposited at the beginning of the wet season (0.73 vs. 1.50 g/day-1 on a dry weight basis). A strong linear relationship was found between dung removal and soil accumulation at the original soil surface, with an average of 2.0 g soil accumulated for every gram of dung which was removed. This relationship was not affected by deposition season. The lack of a seasonal difference, along with the relatively low decomposition rates during the wet season, were explained by the dominance of termites in the dung patches throughout the year. Evidence of dung beetle activity was never recorded during the dry season and was found in only 18 of the 45 dung patches recovered during the wet season.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 6 (1914), S. 796-797 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 16 (1924), S. 1063-1066 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0022-5193
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Photosynthetic capacity and leaf properties of sun and shade leaves of overstorey sweetgum trees (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) were compared over the first 3 years of growth in ambient or ambient + 200 μL L−1 CO2 at the Duke Forest Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. We were interested in whether photosynthetic down-regulation to CO2 occurred in sweetgum trees growing in a forest ecosystem, whether shade leaves down-regulated to a greater extent than sun leaves, and if there was a seasonal component to photosynthetic down-regulation. During June and September of each year, we measured net photosynthesis (A) versus the calculated intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) in situ and analysed these response curves using a biochemical model that described the limitations imposed by the amount and activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Vcmax) and by the rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration mediated by electron transport (Jmax). There was no evidence of photosynthetic down-regulation to CO2 in either sun or shade leaves of sweetgum trees over the 3 years of measurements. Elevated CO2 did not significantly affect Vcmax or Jmax. The ratio of Vcmax to Jmax was relatively constant, averaging 2·12, and was not affected by CO2 treatment, position in the canopy, or measurement period. Furthermore, CO2 enrichment did not affect leaf nitrogen per unit leaf area (Na), chlorophyll or total non-structural carbohydrates of sun or shade leaves. We did, however, find a strong relationship between Na and the modelled components of photosynthetic capacity, Vcmax and Jmax. Our data over the first 3 years of this experiment corroborate observations that trees rooted in the ground may not exhibit symptoms of photosynthetic down-regulation as quickly as tree seedlings growing in pots. There was a strong sustained enhancement of photosynthesis by CO2 enrichment whereby light-saturated net photosynthesis of sun leaves was stimulated by 63% and light-saturated net photosynthesis of shade leaves was stimulated by 48% when averaged over the 3 years. This study suggests that this CO2 enhancement of photosynthesis will be sustained in the Duke Forest FACE experiment as long as soil N availability keeps pace with photosynthetic and growth processes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental mechanics 21 (1981), S. 315-320 
    ISSN: 1741-2765
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Multimode-fiber optics are used to holographically record surface deformation in remote areas of a structure Dispiacement patterns agree well with theory, indicating that the proposed technique is feasible. Inherent difficulties encountered with multimode fibers are discussed and guidlines are established for further studies. designed to improve holographic displacement recording using monodode fibers.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental mechanics 21 (1981), S. 349-354 
    ISSN: 1741-2765
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Deflection is recorded at different sensilivities over a limited portion of the holographic range by introducing equal but opposite phase changes into the holograms created by a dual-beam illumination. The technique does not require a partially reflecting mirror, patterns can be optically filtered for better fringe contrast and in-plane displacement can be recorded without making any modifications in the experimental setup. Results obtained from two-and three-dimensional surfaces agree well with theory and verify analytical arguments presented throughout the paper.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: Electroencephalography for determining competency of man during orbital space flight
    Keywords: BIOSCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-57000
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-05-16
    Description: Fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer application in the United States have substantially altered the nitrogen cycle, with serious effects on climate change. The climate effects can be short-lived, by impacting the chemistry of the atmosphere, or long-lived, by altering ecosystem greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we develop a coherent framework for assessing the climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen emissions, including oxides of nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide (N2O). We use the global temperature potential (GTP), calculated at 20 and 100 y, in units of CO2 equivalents (CO2e), as a common metric. The largest cooling effects are due to combustion sources of oxides of nitrogen altering tropospheric ozone and methane concentrations and enhancing carbon sequestration in forests. The combined cooling effects are estimated at −290 to −510 Tg CO2e on a GTP20 basis. However, these effects are largely short-lived. On a GTP100 basis, combustion contributes just −16 to −95 Tg CO2e. Agriculture contributes to warming on both the 20-y and 100-y timescales, primarily through N2O emissions from soils. Under current conditions, these warming and cooling effects partially offset each other. However, recent trends show decreasing emissions from combustion sources. To prevent warming from US reactive nitrogen, reductions in agricultural N2O emissions are needed. Substantial progress toward this goal is possible using current technology. Without such actions, even greater CO2 emission reductions will be required to avoid dangerous climate change.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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