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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2006-05-22
    Description: Polarization properties of the angularly scattered laser light from a volume of air are used to determine the size distribution of the aerosol particles within the volume by the use of appropriate inversion techniques. Similar techniques are employed to determine a mean size distribution of the particulates within a vertical column through the atmosphere from determinations of the aerosol optical depth as a function of wavelength. In both of these examples, a modification of an inversion technique originally described by Twomey has been employed. Details of this method are presented as well as results from actual measurements employing bistatic lidar and solar radiometer.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Langley Res. Center Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding; p 469-503
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2005-06-09
    Description: In January and March 1992, DC-8-measured stratospheric particle optical depth spectra, tau(sub p)(lambda), peaked broadly at midvisible or longer wavelengths. At mid-to-high northern latitudes outside the vortex, tau(sub p)(526 nm) nm) above about 11 km was as large as 0.22 in both January and March, reflecting continued Pinatubo volcanic influence. In both months, in-vortex tau(sub p)(lambda) above 11 km was smaller than outside-vortex values by a factor of two or more, and in January a strong anticorrelation was observed between tau(sub p)(lambda) and HF column content (an indicator of vortex penetration). In late January at 18-20S, near the edge of the southern subtropical jet, tau(sub p)(526 nm) above 12 km was only about 0.07-0.09, with a flatter spectral shape than northern mid- to high-latitude measurements in both January and March. Occasional high-latitude vertical profiles indicate 6-11-km slab optical depths, Delta tau(sub p)(526 nm), of 0.05 to 0.1, which should be added to the above-11-km values to yield values above 6 km.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2 Air Parcel Trajectories (ISSN 0094-8534); Volume 20; No. 22; 2571-2574; NASA-TM-112699
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Ames airborne tracking sunphotometer was operated at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) in 1991 and 1992 along with the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) automated tracking sunphotometer and lidar. June 1991 measurements provided calibrations, optical-depth spectra, and intercomparisons under relatively clean conditions; later measurements provided spectra and comparisons for the Pinatubo cloud plus calibration checks. June 1991 results are similar to previous MLO springtime measurements, with midvisible particle optical depth at the near-background level of 0.012 +/- 0.006 and no significant wavelength dependence in the measured range (lambda = 0.38 to 1.06 micrometers). The arrival of the Pinatubo cloud in July 1991 increased midvisible particle optical depth by more than an order of magnitude and changed the spectral shape of to an approximate power law with an exponent of about -1.4. By clearly September 1991, the spectrum was broadly peaked near 0.5 micrometers, and by July 1992, it was peaked near 0.8 micrometers. Our optical-depth spectra include corrections for diffuse light. NOAA- and Ames Research Center (ARC)-measured spectra are in good agreement. Columnar size distributions inverted from the spectra show that the initial (July 1991) post-Pinatubo cloud was relatively rich in small particles (r less than 0.25 micrometers), which were progressively depleted in the August-September 1991 and July 1992 periods. Conversely, both of the later periods had more of the optically efficient medium-sized particles (0.25 less than r less than 1 micrometers) than did the fresh July 1991 cloud. These changes are consistent with particle growth by condensation and coagulation. Photometer-inferred column backscatter values agree with those measured by the CMDL lidar on nearby nights. Combining lidar-measured backscatter profiles with photometer-derived backscatter-to-area ratios gives peak particle areas that could cause rapid heterogeneous loss of ozone, given sufficiently low particle acidity and suitable solar zenith angles (achieved at mid- to high latitudes). Top-of-troposphere radiative forcings for the September 1991 and July 1992 optical depths and size distributions over MLO are about -5 and -3 W/sq m, respectively (hence comparable in magnitude but opposite in sign to the radiative forcing caused by the increase in manmade greenhouse gases since the industrial revolution). Heating rates in the Pinatubo layer over MLO are 0.55 +/- 0.13 and 0.41 +/- 0.14 K/d for September 1991 and July 1992, respectively.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 98; D12; p. 22,969-22,985
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: The intensity of sunlight multiply scattered in model atmospheres is derived from the equation of radiative transfer by an analytical small-angle approximation. The approximate analytical solutions are compared to rigorous numerical solutions of the same problem. Results obtained from an aerosol-laden model atmosphere are presented. Agreement between the rigorous and the approximate solutions is found to be within a few per cent. The analytical solution to the problem which considers an aerosol-laden atmosphere is then inverted to yield a phase function which describes a single scattering event at small angles. The effect of noisy data on the derived phase function is discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences; 32; Mar. 197
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: A multiple wavelength solar radiometer designed for the purpose of measuring atmospheric optical depth at discrete wavelengths through the visible region is described. Experimental techniques, including sample observations, are presented for obtaining atmospheric optical depth from radiometer measurements. These techniques apply for conditions where the optical depth is either temporally variant or invariant during the course of a day. The influence of the aerosol size distribution on optical depth is investigated. Theoretical calculations of the wavelength dependency of the aerosol optical depth contribution are presented for several representative aerosol size distributions. Methods are also presented for estimating the aerosol size distribution and aerosol mass loading from multiwavelength optical depth measurements.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY
    Type: Journal of Applied Meteorology; 12; Mar. 197
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Intensity and polarization of diffusively transmitted sunlight, taking into account various aerosols distributions and normal molecular constituents
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: ; TA FREQUENZA (
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA, Washington Upper Atmosphere Res. Program; p 234-235
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA, Washington Upper Atmosphere Res. Program; p 229-230
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: A statistical technique is developed for inferring the optimum values of the ground albedo and the effective imaginary term of the complex refractive index of atmospheric particulates. The procedure compares measurements of the ratio of the hemispheric diffuse to directly transmitted solar flux density at the earth's surface with radiative transfer computations of the same as suggested by Herman et al. (1975). A detailed study is presented which shows the extent to which the ratio of diffuse to direct solar radiation is sensitive to many of the radiative transfer parameters. Results indicate that the optical depth and size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles are the two parameters which uniquely specify the radiation field to the point where ground albedo and index of absorption can be inferred. Varying the real part of the complex refractive index of atmospheric particulates as well as their vertical distribution is found to have a negligible effect on the diffuse-direct ratio. The statistical procedure utilizes a semi-analytic gradient search method from least-squares theory and includes a detailed error analysis.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences; 36; Jan. 197
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Columnar aerosol size distributions have been inferred by numerically inverting particulate optical depth measurements as a function of wavelength. An inversion formula which explicitly includes the magnitude of the measurement variances is derived and applied to optical depth measurements obtained in Tucson with a solar radiometer. It is found that the individual size distributions of the aerosol particles (assumed spherical), at least for radii greater than or approximately equal to 0.1 micron, fall into one of three distinctly different categories. Approximately 50% of all distributions examined thus far can best be represented as a composite of a Junge distribution plus a distribution of relatively monodispersed larger particles centered at a radius of about 0.5 micron. Scarcely 20% of the distributions yielded Junge size distributions, while 30% yielded relatively monodispersed distributions of the log-normal or gamma distribution types. A representative selection of each of these types will be presented and discussed. The sensitivity of spectral attenuation measurements to the radii limits and refractive index assumed in the numerical inversion will also be addressed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences; 35; Nov. 197
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