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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Measurements of PAN and other reactive nitrogen species during the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) are described, their north-south and east-west gradients in the free troposphere are characterized, and the sources and sinks of PAN and NO(y) are assessed. Large concentrations of PAN and NO(y) are present in the Arctic/sub-Arctic troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere during the summer. Mixing ratios of PAN and a variety of other molecules are more abundant in the free troposphere compared to the boundary layer. Coincident PAN and O3 atmospheric structures suggest that phenomena that define PAN also define the corresponding O3 behavior. Model calculations, correlations between NO(y) and anthropogenic tracers, and the compositions of NO(y) itself suggest that the Arctic/sub-Arctic reactive nitrogen measured during ABLE 3A is predominantly of anthropogenic origin with a minor component from the stratosphere.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D15; p. 16,511-16,522.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: An analysis is presented on the distribution and variability of PAN as well as its relationship with measured chemical and meteorological parameters. The chemicals of most interest for which measurements were available are PAN, NO(x), O3, CO, and C2Cl4. PAN was measured by the electron capture gas chromatographic technique, and the technique for calibrations and measurements are detailed. Data show that significant concentrations of PAN (5-125 ppt) are present during the wet season and this PAN is 1-5 times more abundant than NO(x). PAN levels at different atmospheric locations are discussed, and it is noted that PAN shows evidence of a possible latitudinal gradient in the free troposphere, with values falling rapidly from the northern midlatitudes toward the equator. High correlations between O3 and PAN levels suggest that nonmethane hydrocarbons may contribute significantly to high O3 in the free troposphere. Evidence indicates that virtually all of the NO(x) above 4 km could result from PAN decomposition.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 16945-16
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The partitioning of relative nitrogen in the Arctic and the sub-Arctic troposphere based on measurements conducted during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) is described. The first set of comprehensive odd nitrogen and O3 measurements from the Arctic/sub-Arctic free troposphere shows that a highly aged air mass that has persisted under very cold conditions is present. A large fraction of the odd nitrogen appears to be present in the form of reservoir species such as PAN. Significant quantities of as yet unknown reactive nitrogen species, such as complex alkyl nitrates and pernitrates, are expected to be present. Together with PAN, these nitrate and pernitrate reservoir species could control the entire NO(x) availability of the high-latitude troposphere and in turn influence the O3 photochemistry of the region. The role of PAN in influencing the O3 reservoir is shown to be important and may be responsible for the increasing O3 temporal trend observed at high latitudes.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D15; p. 16,523-16,530.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), NO, NO2, HNO3, NOy (total odd nitrogen), and O3 were made in the high-latitude troposphere over North America and Greenland (35 degrees to 82 degrees N) during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) (July-August 1988) throughout 0-to 6-km altitudes. These data are analyzed to quantitatively describe the relationships between various odd nitrogen species and assess their significance to global tropospheric chemistry. In the free troposphere, PAN was as much as 25 times more abundant than NOx. PAN to NOx ratio increased with increasing altitude and latitude. PAN was found to be the single most abundant reactive nitrogen species in the free troposphere and constituted a major fraction of NOy, PAN to NOy ratios were about 0.1 in the boundary layer and increased to 0.4 in the free troposphere. A 2-D global photochemical model with C1-C3 hydrocarbon chemistry is used to compare model predictions with measured results. A sizable portion (approximately 50%) of the gaseous reactive nitrogen budget is unaccounted for, and unknown organic nitrates and pernitrates are expected to be present. Model calculations (August 1, 70 degrees N) show that a major fraction of the observed NOx (50 to 70% of median) may find its source in the available PAN reservoir. PAN and the unknown reservoir species may have the potential to control virtually the entire NOx availability of the high latitude troposphere. It is predicted that the summer NOx and O3 mixing ratios in the Arctic/sub-Arctic troposphere would be considerably lower in the absence of the ubiquitous PAN reservoir. Conversely, this PAN reservoir may be responsible for the observed temporal increase in tropospheric O3 at high latitudes.
    Keywords: Exobiology
    Type: Journal of geophysical research (ISSN 0148-0227); Volume 97; D15; 16523-30
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: A comprehensive group of reactive nitrogen species (NO, NO2, HNO3, HO2NO2, PANs, alkyl nitrates, and aerosol-NO3) were measured in the troposphere and lowermost stratosphere over North America and the Atlantic during July/August 2004 (INTEX-A) from the NASA DC-8 platform (0.1-12 km). Less reactive nitrogen species (HCN and CH3CN), that are also unique tracers of biomass combustion, were also measured along with a host of other gaseous (CO, VOC, OVOC, halocarbon) and aerosol tracers. Clean background air as well as air with influences from biogenic emissions, anthropogenic pollution, biomass combustion, and stratosphere was sampled both over continental U. S., Atlantic and Pacific. The North American upper troposphere was found to be greatly influenced by both lightning NO(x) and surface pollution lofted via convection and contained elevated concentrations of PAN, ozone, hydrocarbons, and NO(x). Under polluted conditions PAN was a dominant carrier of reactive nitrogen in the upper troposphere while nitric acid dominated in the lower troposphere. Peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2) was present in sizable concentrations always peaking at around 8 km. Aerosol nitrate appeared to be mostly contained in large soil based particles in the lower troposphere. Plumes from Alaskan fires contained large amounts of PAN and very little enhancement in ozone. Observational data suggest that lightning was a far greater contributor to NO(x) in the upper troposphere than previously believed. NO(x) and NO(y) reservoir appeared to be in steady state only in the middle troposphere where NO(x)/NO(y) was independent of air mass age. A first comparison of observed data with simulations from four 3-D models shows significant differences between observations and models as well as among models. These uncertainties likely propagate themselves in satellites derived NOx data. Observed data are interpreted to suggest that soil sinks of HCN/CH3CN are at best very small. We investigate the partitioning and interplay of the reactive nitrogen species within characteristic air masses and further examine their role in ozone formation.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research to be published in volume 112, pp. 1-15, April 2007
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A comprehensive group of reactive nitrogen species (NO, NOz, HN03, HOzN02, PANs, alkyl nitrates, and aerosol-NO3) were measured over North America during July/August 2004 from the NASA DC-8 platform (0.1 - 12 km). Nitrogen containing tracers of biomass combustion (HCN and CH3CN) were also measured along with a host of other gaseous (CO, VOC, OVOC, halocarbon) and aerosol tracers. Clean background air as well as air with influences from biogenic emissions, anthropogenic pollution, biomass combustion, convection, lightning, and the stratosphere was sampled over the continental United States, the Atlantic, and the Pacific. The North American upper troposphere (UT) was found to be greatly influenced by both lightning NO, and surface pollution lofted via convection and contained elevated concentrations of PAN, ozone, hydrocarbons, and NO,. Observational data suggest that lightning was a far greater contributor to NO, in the UT than previously believed. PAN provided a dominant reservoir of reactive nitrogen in the UT while nitric acid dominated in the lower troposphere (LT). Peroxynitric acid (H02N02) was present in sizable concentrations peaking at around 8 km. Aerosol nitrate appeared to be mostly contained in large soil based particles in the LT. Plumes from Alaskan fires contained large amounts of PAN and aerosol nitrate but little enhancement in ozone. A comparison of observed data with simulations from four 3-D models shows significant differences between observations and models as well as among models. We investigate the partitioning and interplay of the reactive nitrogen species within characteristic air masses and further examine their role in ozone formation.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 112
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: We report the first in-situ measurements of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and acetonitrile (CH3CN) from the Pacific troposphere (0-12 km) obtained during the NASA/Trace-P mission (Feb.-April, 2001). Mean HCN and CH3CN mixing ratios of 243 (+/-118) ppt and 149 (+/-56) ppt respectively, were measured. The in-situ observations correspond to a total HCN column of 4.4-4.9 x 10(exp 15) molec. cm(exp -2) and a CH3CN column of 2.8-3.0 x 10(exp 15) molec. cm(exp -2). This HCN column is in good agreement with available spectroscopic observations. The atmospheric concentrations of HCN and CH3CN were greatly influenced by outflow of pollution from Asia. There is a linear relationship between the mixing ratios of HCN and CH3CN, and in turn these are well correlated with tracers of biomass combustion (e.g. CH3Cl, CO). Relative enhancements with respect to known tracers of biomass combustion within selected plumes in the free troposphere, and pollution episodes in the boundary layer allow an estimation of a global biomass burning source of 0.8+/-0.4 Tg (N)/y for HCN and 0.4+/-0.1 Tg (N)/y for CH3CN. In comparison, emissions from automobiles and industry are quite small (〈0.05 Tg (N)/y). The vertical structure of HCN and CH3CN indicated reduced mixing ratios in the MBL (Marine Boundary Layer). Using, a simple box model, the observed gradients across the top of the MBL are used to derive an oceanic flux of 6.7 x 10(exp -15) g (N) cm(exp -2)/s for HCN and 4.8 x 10(exp -15) g (N) cm(exp -2)/s for CH3CN. An air-sea exchange model is used to conclude that this flux can be maintained if the oceans are under-saturated in HCN and CH3CN by 23% and 17%, respectively. It is inferred that oceanic loss is a dominant sink for these nitrites, and they deposit some 1.3 Tg (N) of nitrogen annually to the oceans. Assuming reaction with OH radicals and loss to the oceans as the major removal processes, a mean atmospheric residence time of 4.7 months for HCN and 5.1 months for CH3CN is calculated. A global budget analysis shows that the sources and sinks of HCN and CH3CN are roughly in balance. There are indications that biogenic sources may also be present. Mechanisms involved in nitrate formation during combustion and removal in the oceans are poorly understood.
    Keywords: Geophysics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: Airborne measurements of a large number of oxygenated organics were carried out in the Pacific troposphere (to 12 km) in the Spring of 2001 (Feb. 24-April 10). Specifically these measurements included acetaldehyde, propanaldehyde, acetone, methylethyl ketone, methanol, ethanol, PAM and organic nitrates. Independent measurements of formaldehyde, peroxides, and tracers were also available. Highly polluted as well as pristine air masses were sampled. Oxygenated organics were abundant in the clean In troposphere and were greatly enhanced in the outflow regions from Asia. Extremely high concentrations of aldehydes could be measured in the troposphere. It is not possible to explain the large abundances of aldehydes in the background troposphere without invoking significant oceanic sources. A strong correlation between the observed mixing ratios of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde is present. We infer that higher aldehydes (such as acetaldehyde and propanaldehyde) may provide a large source of formaldehyde and sequester Cox throughout the troposphere. The atmospheric behavior of acetone, methylethyl ketone, and methanol is generally indicative of their common terrestrial sources with a Image contribution from biomass/biofuel burning. A vast body of data has been collected and it is being analyzed both statistically and with the help of models to better understand the role that oxygenated organics play in the atmosphere and to unravel their sources and sinks. These results will be presented.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: 7th Scientific Conference of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project; 18-25 Sep. 2002; Crete; Greece
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: A new capillary gas chromatographic method using a Reduction Gas Detector was developed to measure HCN and CH3CN in the remote troposphere. This instrumental configuration was deployed for the very first time in the Trace-P field mission performed during the spring of 2001. The NASA DC-8 aircraft afforded an opportunity to measure HCN and CH3CN in polluted and pristine environments over the Pacific to a maximum altitude of 12 km. These are some of the first in situ measurements of the distribution of HCN and CH3CN over the Pacific. Large background concentrations of both nitriles were found to be present and significant variability was observed. The abundance of HCN and CH3CN was strongly impacted by outflow of pollution from Asia. In general there appeared to be a direct but nonlinear relationship between the mixing ratios of HCN and CH3CN. The vertical structure of these chemicals shows direct evidence of the presence of a significant oceanic sink. These observations will be compared with the column content HCN data from satellites and other available measurements. A large body of data have been collected and are being analyzed, both statistically and with the help of models, to better understand the sources and sinks of these nitriles. These results will be presented.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: 7th Scientific Conference on the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project; 18-25 Sep. 2002; Crete; Greece
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Aircraft measurements of key reactive nitrogen species (NO, NO2, HNO3, PAN, PPN, NO3(-), NO(y)), C1 to C6 hydrocarbons, acetone, O3, chemical tracers (C2Cl4, CO), and important meteorological parameters were performed over eastern Canada during July to August 1990 at altitudes between 0 and 6 km as part of an Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE3B). In the free troposphere, PAN was found to be the single most abundant reactive nitrogen species constituting a major fraction of NO(y) and was significantly more abundant than NO(x) and HNO3. PAN and O3 were well correlated both in their fine and gross structures. Compared to data previously collected in the Arctic/subarctic atmosphere over Alaska (ABLE3A), the lower troposphere (0-4 km) over eastern Canada was found to contain larger reactive nitrogen and anthropogenic tracer concentrations. At higher altitudes (4-6 km) the atmospheric composition was in many ways similar to what was seen over Alaska and supports the view that a large-scale reservoir of PAN (and NO(y)) is present in the upper troposphere over the entire Arctic/subarctic region. The reactive nitrogen budget based on missions conducted from the North Bay site (missions 2-10) showed a small shortfall, whereas the budget for data collected from the Goose Bay operation (missions 11-19) showed essential balance. It is calculated that 15-20 ppt of the observed NO(x) may find its source from the available PAN reservoir. Meteorological considerations as well as relationships between reactive nitrogen and tracer species suggest that the atmosphere over eastern Canada during summer is greatly influenced by forest fires and transported industrial pollution.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; D1; p. 1821-1835
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