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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-21
    Description: This data release includes 56,432 square kilometers of multibeam swath bathymetry collected during a 2017 (June - August) research expedition onboard the RRS Discovery, DY081, in the North Atlantic Ocean. DY081 was the first fieldwork component of a European Research Council funded project, ICY-LAB, led by Dr. K. Hendry from the University of Bristol to study nutrient cycling in the North Atlantic. Four sites of interest were surveyed with an EM-122 echosounder prior to scientific operations, such as CTD deployment, sediment coring, and/or ROV dives. The four sites were Orphan Knoll off the coast of Newfoundland, and Nuuk, Nasrsaq, and Cape Farewell off southwest Greenland. Multibeam data was also recorded and processed during transit between locations. Data from the study sites and transits (EM-122 raw .all files and 25-meter resolution grids) are provided.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 80 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-21
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 108 data points
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hendry, Katharine R; Robinson, Laura F; Meredith, Michael P; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano Mazur; Arz, Helge W (2012): Abrupt changes in high-latitude nutrient supply to the Atlantic during the last glacial cycle. Geology, 40(2), 123-126, https://doi.org/10.1130/G32779.1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-21
    Description: The supply of nutrients to the low-latitude thermocline is largely controlled by intermediate-depth waters formed at the surface in the high southern latitudes. Silicic acid is an essential macronutrient for diatoms, which are responsible for a significant portion of marine carbon export production. Changes in ocean circulation, such as those observed during the last deglaciation, would influence the nutrient composition of the thermocline and, therefore, the relative abundance of diatoms in the low latitudes. Here we present the first record of the silicic acid content of the Atlantic over the last glacial cycle. Our results show that at intermediate depths of the South Atlantic, the silicic acid concentration was the same at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as it is today, overprinted by high silicic acid pulses that coincided with abrupt changes in ocean and atmospheric circulation during Heinrich Stadials and the Younger Dryas. We suggest these pulses were caused by changes in intermediate water formation resulting from shifts in the subpolar hydrological cycle, with fundamental implications for the nutrient supply to the Atlantic.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 27 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-02-21
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 30 data points
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-02-21
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 88 data points
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Major shifts in ocean circulation are thought to be responsible for abrupt changes in temperature and atmospheric CO2 during the last deglaciation, linked to variability in meridional heat transport and deep ocean carbon storage. There is also widespread evidence for shifts in biological production during these times of deglacial CO2 rise, including enhanced diatom production in regions such as the tropical Atlantic. However, it remains unclear as to whether this diatom production was driven by enhanced wind-driven upwelling or density-driven vertical mixing, or by elevated thermocline concentrations of silicic acid supplied to the surface at a constant rate. Here, we demonstrate that silicic acid supply at depth in the NE Atlantic was enhanced during the abrupt climate events of the deglaciation. We use marine sediment archives to show that an increase in diatom production during abrupt climate shifts could only occur in regions of the NE Atlantic where the deep supply of silicic acid could reach the surface. The associated changes are indicative of enhanced regional wind-driven upwelling and/or weakened stratification due to circulation changes during phases of weakened Atlantic meridional overturning. Globally near-synchronous pulses of diatom production and enhanced thermocline concentrations of silicic acid suggest that widespread deglacial surface-driven breakdown of stratification, linked to changes in atmospheric circulation, had major consequences for biological productivity and carbon cycling.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hendry, Katharine R; Rickaby, Rosalind E M (2008): Opal (Zn/Si) ratios as a nearshore geochemical proxy in coastal Antarctica. Paleoceanography, 23(2), PA2218, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007PA001576
    Publication Date: 2019-02-21
    Description: During the last 50 years, the Antarctic Peninsula has experienced rapid warming with associated retreat of 87% of marine and tidewater glacier fronts. Accelerated glacial retreat and iceberg calving may have a significant impact on the freshwater and nutrient supply to the phytoplankton communities of the highly productive coastal regions. However, commonly used biogenic carbonate proxies for nutrient and salinity conditions are not preserved in sediments from coastal Antarctica. Here we describe a method for the measurement of zinc to silicon ratios in diatom opal, (Zn/Si)opal, which is a potential archive in Antarctic marine sediments. A core top calibration from the West Antarctic Peninsula shows (Zn/Si)opal is a proxy for mixed layer salinity. We present down-core (Zn/Si)opal paleosalinity records from two rapidly accumulating sites taken from nearshore environments off the West Antarctic Peninsula which show an increase in meltwater input in recent decades. Our records show that the recent melting in this region is unprecedented for over 120 years.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 12 (2011): Q09007, doi:10.1029/2011GC003691.
    Description: Major deepwater masses upwell and reach the surface in the Southern Ocean, forming an important conduit supplying nutrients and micronutrients to the surface and playing a key role in the regulation of global climate through ocean-atmosphere gas exchange. Here, we reconstruct changes in micronutrient distribution in this region in response to past changes in upwelling, oceanic mixing, and sea-ice seasonality. We present two downcore (Zn/Si)opal records from the Scotia Sea and Drake Passage region, which we interpret in the context of micronutrient distribution in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean over the last glacial termination. Previous work shows that micronutrient availability in the surface waters in the South Atlantic appear to be controlled dominantly by upwelling and mixing of micronutrient rich deepwaters, which are additionally fuelled by the terrestrial sediment sources of the Scotia Arc and South Georgia. This is supported by our reconstructions, which show micronutrient availability to the west of the Scotia Arc and South Georgia are consistently lower than to the east over the last glacial termination due to downstream transport and mixing into surface waters of continentally derived material in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Micronutrient availability in this region was at a minimum from 20 to 25 ky BP, coinciding with maximum sea-ice coverage, and increased due to an expansion of the seasonal sea-ice zone and increased mixing of subsurface waters. Our findings are consistent with largely diminished upwelling of micronutrients during the maximum glacial extent, and reduced mixing due to the presence of persistent sea-ice. During the deglacial there was an increase in micronutrient availability, as well as other nutrients and inorganic carbon, within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as a result of an increase in deep oceanic upwelling, mixing and strengthened zonal transport.
    Description: This work was funded by NERC/S/A/2004/12390 and the Antarctic Funding Initiative grant AFI4–02.
    Keywords: Deglaciation ; Diatom opal ; Westerlies ; Zinc
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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    Format: text/plain
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2010. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Antarctic Science 23 (2011): 34-42, doi:10.1017/S0954102010000593.
    Description: Cycling of deep-water silicon (Si) within the Southern Ocean, and its transport into other ocean basins, may be an important player in the uptake of atmospheric carbon, and global climate. Recent work has shown that the Si isotope (denoted by δ29Si or δ30Si) composition of deep-sea sponges reflects the availability of dissolved Si during growth, and is a potential proxy for past deep and intermediate water silicic acid concentrations. As with any geochemical tool, it is essential to ensure analytical precision and accuracy, and consistency between methodologies and laboratories. Analytical bias may exist between laboratories, and sponge material may have matrix effects leading to offsets between samples and standards. Here, we report an interlaboratory evaluation of Si isotopes in Antarctic and subAntarctic sponges. We review independent methods for measuring Si isotopes in sponge spicules. Our results show that separate subsamples of non-homogenised sponges measured by three methods yield isotopic values within analytical error for over 80% of specimens. The relationship between δ29Si and δ30Si in sponges is consistent with kinetic fractionation during biomineralisation. Sponge Si isotope analyses show potential as palaeoceaongraphic archives, and we suggest Southern Ocean sponge material would form a useful additional reference standard for future spicule analyses.
    Description: Cruise NBP0805 was funded by NSF Office of Polar Programs (OPP) Antarctic Sciences (grant number ANT-0636787). KH is funded by a Doherty Postdoctoral Scholarship at WHOI, and the work has also been funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) grant NE/F005296/1 and an Antarctic Science Bursary.
    Keywords: Biogeochemistry ; Porifera ; Nutrient ; Calibration ; Silicic acid
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2010. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters 302 (2011): 253-254, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.023.
    Description: The relative importance of biological and physical processes within the Southern Ocean for the storage of carbon and atmospheric pCO2 on glacial-interglacial timescales remains uncertain. Understanding the impact of surface biological production on carbon export in the past relies on the reconstruction of the nutrient supply from upwelling deep-waters. In particular, the upwelling of silicic acid (Si(OH)4) is tightly coupled to carbon export in the Southern Ocean via diatom productivity. Here, we address how changes in deep-water Si(OH)4 concentrations can be reconstructed using the silicon isotopic composition of deep-sea sponges. We report δ30Si of modern deep-sea sponge spicules and show that they reflect seawater Si(OH)4 concentration. The fractionation factor of sponge δ30Si compared to seawater δ30Si shows a positive relationship with Si(OH)4, which may be a growth rate effect. Application of this proxy in two down-core records from the Scotia Sea reveals that Si(OH)4 concentrations in the deep Southern Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were no different than today. Our result does not support a coupling of carbon and nutrient build up in an isolated deep-ocean reservoir during the LGM. Our data, combined with records of stable isotopes from diatoms, are only consistent with enhanced LGM Southern Ocean nutrient utilization if there was also a concurrent reduction in diatom silicification or a shift from siliceous to organic-walled phytoplankton.
    Description: Cruise NBP0805 was funded by NSF Office of Polar Programs (OPP) Antarctic Sciences (grant number ANT-0636787). Data from the Palmer LTER data archive were supported by Office of Polar Programs, NSF grants OPP-9011927, OPP-9632763 and OPP-0217282. The work was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) grant NE/F005296/1 and an Antarctic Science Bursary.
    Keywords: Porifera ; Spicule ; Silicic acid ; Deep-water ; Silicon cycle ; Glacial
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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