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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-08-01
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Electronic ISSN: 2156-2202
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2008-11-20
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Electronic ISSN: 2156-2202
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1999-07-10
    Description: The Rossby adjustment problem for a homogeneous fluid in a channel is solved for large values of the initial depth discontinuity. We begin by analysing the classical dam break problem in which the depth on one side of the discontinuity is zero. An approximate solution for this case can be constructed by assuming semigeostrophic dynamics and using the method of characteristics. This theory is supplemented by numerical solutions to the full shallow water equations. The development of the flow and the final, equilibrium volume transport are governed by the ratio of the Rossby radius of deformation to the channel width, the only non-dimensional parameter. After the dam is destroyed the rotating fluid spills down the dry section of the channel forming a rarefying intrusion which, for northern hemisphere rotation, is banked against the right-hand wall (facing downstream). As the channel width is increased the speed of the leading edge (along the right-hand wall) exceeds the intrusion speed for the non-rotating case, reaching the limiting value of 3.80 times the linear Kelvin wave speed in the upstream basin. On the left side of the channel fluid separates from the sidewall at a point whose speed decreases to zero as the channel width approaches infinity. Numerical computations of the evolving flow show good I agreement with the semigeostrophic theory for widths less than about a deformation radius. For larger widths cross-channel accelerations, absent in the semigeostrophic approximation, reduce the agreement. The final equilibrium transport down the channel is determined from the semigeostrophic theory and found to depart from the non-rotating result for channels widths greater than about one deformation radius. Rotation limits the transport to a constant maximum value for channel widths greater than about four deformation radii. The case in which the initial fluid depth downstream of the dam is non-zero is then examined numerically. The leading rarefying intrusion is now replaced by a Kelvin shock, or bore, whose speed is substantially less than the zero-depth intrusion speed. The shock is either straight across the channel or attached only to the right-hand wall depending on the channel width and the additional parameter, the initial depth difference. The shock speeds and amplitudes on the right-hand wall, for fixed downstream depth, increase above the non-rotating values with increasing channel width. However, rotation reduces the speed of a shock of given amplitude below the non-rotating case. We also find evidence of resonant generation of Poincaré waves by the bore. Shock characteristics are compared to theories of rotating shocks and qualitative agreement is found except for the change in potential vorticity across the shock, which is very sensitive to the model dissipation. Behind the leading shock the flow evolves in much the same way as described by linear theory except for the generation of strongly nonlinear transverse oscillations and rapid advection down the right-hand channel wall of fluid originally upstream of the dam. Final steady-state transports decrease from the zero upstream depth case as the initial depth difference is decreased.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1120
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-7645
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1995-08-01
    Print ISSN: 0309-1929
    Electronic ISSN: 1029-0419
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Informa UK Limited
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2001-06-22
    Description: Laboratory and numerical experiments are used to study flow of a uniform-density fluid on the β-plane around a thin zonally elongated island (or ridge segment in the abyss). This orientation is chosen specifically to highlight the roles of the zonal boundary layer dynamics in controlling the circulation around the island. There are examples of deep ocean topography that fall into this category which make the work directly applicable to oceanic flows. Linear theory for the transport around the island and the flow structure is based on a modification of the Island Rule (Pedlosky et al. 1997; Pratt & Pedlosky 1999). The linear solution gives a north-south symmetric flow around the island with novel features, including stagnation points which divide the zonal boundary layers into eastward and westward flowing zones, and a western boundary layer of vanishing length, and zonal jets. Laboratory experiments agree with the linear theory for small degrees of nonlinearity, as measured by the ratio of the inertial to Munk boundary layer scales. With increasing nonlinearity the northsouth symmetry is broken. The southern stagnation point (for anticyclonic forcing) moves to the eastern tip of the island. The flow rounding the eastern tip from the northern side of the island now separates from the island. Time-dependence emerges and recirculation cells develop on the northern side of the island. Mean transport around the island is relatively unaffected by nonlinearity and given to within 20% by the modified Island Rule. Numerical solutions of the shallow water equations are in close agreement with the laboratory results. The transition from zonal to meridional island orientation occurs for island inclinations from zonal greater than about 20°.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1120
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-7645
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2000-02-10
    Description: In order to gain insight into the hydraulics of rotating-channel flow, a set of initial-value problems analogous to Long's towing experiments is considered. Specifically, we calculate the adjustment caused by the introduction of a stationary obstacle into a steady, single-layer flow in a rotating channel of infinite length. Using the semigeostrophic approximation and the assumption of uniform potential vorticity, we predict the critical obstacle height above which upstream influence occurs. This height is a function of the initial Froude number, the ratio of the channel width to an appropriately defined Rossby radius of deformation, and a third parameter governing how the initial volume flux in sidewall boundary layers is partitioned. (In all cases, the latter is held to a fixed value specifying zero flow in the right-hand (facing downstream) boundary layer.) The temporal development of the flow according to the full, two-dimensional shallow water equations is calculated numerically, revealing numerous interesting features such as upstream-propagating shocks and separated rarefying intrusions, downstream hydraulic jumps in both depth and stream width, flow separation, and two types of recirculations. The semigeostrophic prediction of the critical obstacle height proves accurate for relatively narrow channels and moderately accurate for wide channels. Significantly, we find that contact with the left-hand wall (facing downstream) is crucial to most of the interesting and important features. For example, no instances are found of hydraulic control of flow that is separated from the left-hand wall at the sill, despite the fact that such states have been predicted by previous semigeostrophic theories. The calculations result in a series of regime diagrams that should be very helpful for investigators who wish to gain insight into rotating, hydraulically driven flow.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1120
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-7645
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2004-10-10
    Description: Oceanic observations indicate that abyssal mixing tends to be localized to regions of rough topography. How localized mixing interacts with the ambient fluid in a stratified, rotating system is an open question. To gain insight into this complicated process laboratory experiments are used to explore the interaction of mechanically induced boundary mixing and an interior body of linearly stratified rotating fluid. Turbulence is generated by a single vertically oscillating horizontal bar of finite horizontal extent, located at mid-depth along the tank wall. The turbulence forms a region of mixed fluid which quickly reaches a steady-state height and collapses into the interior. The mixed-layer thickness, hm ∼ γ(ω/N1/2, is spatially uniform and independent of the Coriolis frequency f. N is the initial buoyancy frequency, ω is the bar oscillation frequency, and γ ≈ 1 cm is an empirical constant determined by the bar geometry. Surprisingly, the export of mixed fluid does not occur as a boundary current along the tank perimeter. Rather, mixed fluid intrudes directly into the interior as a radial front of uniform height, advancing with a speed comparable to a gravity current. The volume of mixed fluid grows linearly with time, V α (N/f 32h3mft, and is independent of the lateral extent of the mixing bar. Entrainment into the turbulent zone occurs principally through horizontal flows at the level of the mixing that appear to eliminate export by a geostrophic boundary flow. The circulation patterns suggest a model of unmixed fluid laterally entrained at velocity ue ∼ Nhm, into the open sides of a turbulent zone with height hm and a length, perpendicular to the boundary, proportional to Lf ≡ γ(ω/f)1/2. Here Lf is an equilibrium length scale associated with rotational control of bar-generated turbulence. The model flux of exported mixed fluid Q ∼ hmLfue is constant and in agreement with the experiments. © 2004 Cambridge University Press.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1120
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-7645
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-01-29
    Description: Oceanic internal solitary waves are typically generated by barotropic tidal flow over localised topography. Wave generation can be characterised by the Froude number , where is the tidal flow amplitude and is the intrinsic linear long wave phase speed, that is the speed in the absence of the tidal current. For steady tidal flow in the resonant regime, 〈![CDATA[ [STIX]x1D6E5-m〈F-1, a theory based on the forced Korteweg-de Vries equation shows that upstream and downstream propagating undular bores are produced. The bandwidth limits depend on the height (or depth) of the topographic forcing term, which can be either positive or negative depending on whether the topography is equivalent to a hole or a sill. Here the wave generation process is studied numerically using a forced Korteweg-de Vries equation model with time-dependent Froude number, , representative of realistic tidal flow. The response depends on , where is the maximum of over half of a tidal cycle. When 〈![CDATA[ [STIX]x1D6E5-max the flow is always subcritical and internal solitary waves appear after release of the downstream disturbance. When 〈![CDATA[ [STIX]x1D6E5-m the tidal flow goes through the resonant regime twice, producing undular bores with each passage. The numerical simulations are for both symmetrical topography, and for asymmetric topography representative of Stellwagen Bank and Knight Inlet. © 2018 Cambridge University PressÂ.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1120
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-7645
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2010-07-15
    Print ISSN: 1023-5809
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7946
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-02-14
    Print ISSN: 1023-5809
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7946
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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