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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 13/G 8227 ; G 8256
    In: Elsevier oceanography series
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XIV, 393 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
    ISBN: 0444419675
    Series Statement: Elsevier oceanography series 33
    Language: English
    Location: Reading room
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: Structure ; morphology ; petrology ; peridotite-basalt
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The St. Paul F.Z. is a large structural domain made up of multiple transform faults interrupted by several Intra-Transform Ridge (ITR) spreading segments. Two regions were studied in details by submersible: (1) The ITR short (〈20 km in length) segment near 0° 37′N–25° 27′W and 1° N–27° 42′W and (2) The St. Peter and St. Paul's Rocks (SPPR) massif located at 29° 25′W (¡3700 m depth). (1) The short ITR segments consist of a magma starved rift valley with recent volcanic activities at 4700 m depth. A geological profile made along the rift valley wall showed localized volcanics (basalts and dykes) which are believed to overlay and intrude the ultramafics. The geological setting and the high ultramafic/volcanic ratio suggest an extremely low magmatic supply and crustal-mantle uplift during lithospheric stretching and denudation. (2) The St. Peter and St. Paul's Rocks (SPPR) massif consists of a sigmoidal ridge within the active transform zone. The SPPR is divided into two different geological domains called the North and the South Ridges. The North Ridge consists of strongly tectonized fault scarps composed of banded and mylonitized peridotite, sporadic gabbros (3900–2500 m) and metabasalts (2700–1700 m). The South Ridge is less tectonized with undeformed, serpentinized spinel lherzolite (2000–1400 m) and basalts. Extensional motion and denudation accompanied by diapirism affected the South Ridge within a transform domain. Instead, the North Ridge was formed during an important strike-slip and faulting motion resulting in the uplifted portion of the St. Paul F.Z. transverse ridge. There is a regional compositional variation of the volcanics where E-MORBs and alkali basalts are produced on the SPPR massif and are comparable to the adjacent northern segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. On the other hand, N and T- MORBs collected from the eastern part of the St. Paul F.Z. (25° 27′ W IRT) are similar to the volcanics from the southern segments of the MAR. The peridotites exposed in these provinces (SPPR and ITR) are similar in their REE and trace element distribution. Different degrees (3–15%) of partial melting of a mixed composite mantle consisting of spinel and amphibole bearing lherzolite veined with 5–40% clinopyroxenite gave rise to the observed MORBs and alkali basalts.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A submersible study of a fast spreading (12 cm yr-1) Mid-Ocean ridge segment (East Pacific Rise near 12°50′ N) led to the discovery of intense hydrothermal activity. Twenty four sites with active vents and sixty inactive hydrothermal deposits were found within a narrow graben averaging about 300 m in width along a 20 km long segment of the ridge crest. The graben is floored with fresh basaltic sheet flows including collapsed pits or lava lake structures. From both deep towed camera stations and manned submersible observations, it is estimated that the average spacing between the ridge axis hydrothermal deposits averaging in size 10–50 m in diameter lies between 100 to 200 m. The hydrothermal deposits found in the central graben are believed to have formed rapidly (on the order of a few decades). Detailed investigations of one active site have enabled us to witness the growth of an active chimney which increased its height by 40 cm in 5 days i.e. 8 cm per day. Extensive hydrothermal deposits were discovered on an off-axis seamount located 6 km East of the ridge axis. The hydrothermal deposits found on both the ridge axis and on the seamount are similar in composition and consist essentially of zinc, copper and iron mineral phases. Chemical studies conducted on the venting fluids (320°C) showed that the concentration of the dissolved major metal ions (Fe, Mn, and Zn) is about 0.10–0.13 gl-1. If we accept an average flow rate of 10ls-1 based on visual observations the mass of metallic products spewing out from an active chimney must be about 100 kg per day.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1438-1168
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Der Pitcairn Hotspot, ca. 60 km östlich von der Insel Pitcairn, besteht aus mehreren noch aktiven Vulkanen, die bis zu 500m unter dem Meeresspiegel aufragen. Die Hotspot Gesteinsproben können vier Vulkanittypen zugeordnet werden: (1) Pikritbasalt mit Ti-reichem Chromit (8–10 Gew.% TiO2); (2) Alkalibasalt (Ti-reicher Chromit, 4–6 Gew.% TiO2); (3) Trachyandesit mit Titanomagnetit (18–22 Gew.% TiO2); und Sulfiden sowie (4) Trachyt (Titanomagnetit, 19–23 Gew.% TiO2); Die Metalloxyde haben, verbunden mit abnehmendem TiO2-Gehalt, einen Zonarbau vom Kern zum Rand. Eine Kristallfraktionierung (〈 60 %) ist Hauptursache für die Differenzierung der vier Vulkanittypen aus einer angereicherten Magmenquelle. Pyrrhotit und sehr wening Chalkopyrit als Kontaktphase zum Pyrrhotit sind nur im Trachyandesit (3) in Clustern mit idiomorphen Kristalleinsprenglingen im Kontakt mit Titanomagnetit gefunden worden. Weiterhin bedecken große idiomorphe Pyrrhotit plättchen, davon einige mit hexagonalem Habitus, die Wände der Gasblasen. Die Variationsbreite des Fe/S aller Pyrrhotite ist mit 0,90-0,99 gering. Die Pyrrhotite in den Clustern sind früher als oder gleichzeitig mit Titanomagnetit im Magmenreservoir während der Kristall-Schmelze Fraktionierung auskristallisiert. Die spät gebildeten Pyrrhotite in den Gasblasen sind durch einen Diffusionsprozeß von Fe aus der trachyandesitischen Schmelze entstanden. Eisen diffundierte aus der glasigen Grundmasse in die Hohlräume und reagierte dort mit Schwefel, der als volatiler Bestandteil vorlag.
    Notes: Summary The Pitcairn hotspot, located about 60 km east of Pitcairn Island (South Pacific), consists of several active volcanoes 〈 500 m below sea level. The volcanic rocks from these seamounts are classified in four main rock-types: (1) picritic basalt containing Ti-bearing chromite (8–10 wt.% TiO2); (2) alkali basalt (Ti-bearing chromite with 4–6 wt.% TiO2); (3) trachyandesite containing titanomagnetite (18–22 wt.% TiO2); and sulfides, and (4) trachyte (titanomagnetite with 19–23 wt.% TiO2); The metallic oxides are zoned with decreasing Tîl02 contents from core to rim. Crystal fractionation (〉 60%) is the main process responsible for differentiating these rock-types from an enriched source. Pyrrhotite and rare chalcopyrite grains in contact with pyrrhotite are observed only in the trachyandesite (3) in disseminated phenocryst clusters, usually in contact with large euhedral titanomagnetite phenocrysts. In addition, large euhedral pyrrhotite flakes, some with hexagonal habit, coat the walls of vesicles. All these pyrrhotite grains show a small range in Fe/S (0.90–0.99). The pyrrhotite in clusters precipitated earlier or simultaneously with titanomagnetite in a magmatic reservoir during crystal-liquid fractionation. Late precipitated vesicle pyrrhotite was formed by diffusion of Fe from the trachyandesitic liquid after the formation of the vesicles. Iron diffused from the glassy groundmass into the vesicle and reacted there with sulfur-bearing volatiles.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: hot spot ; geology ; Teahitia ; structure ; morphology ; volcanics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Teahitia-Mehetia hot spot region located in the southeastern extension of the Society Islands chain, near 18° S–148° W consists of several active volcanoes. The distribution of recent volcanic activity correlates with seismic epicenters, and covers an area of more than 1000 km2. Intermittent volcanic activity has given rise to large (〉1000 m high) and small (〈500 m high) edifices composed of various types of flows. Several recent volcanic events have produced a suite of alkalic rocks ranging from ankaramites, through alkali basalts to trachy-phonolites. The presence of altered MORB-like tholeiites on one small seamount suggests that a different mantle source material was involved in forming some of the crust in this hot spot region.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: volcanology ; hotspot ; Pacific ; Macdonald ; petrology ; Austral Islands
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The southeastern extension of the Austral Islands volcanic chain terminates near 29°S, 140°W at the active Macdonald Seamount. The ‘hotspot’ region near Macdonald consists of at least five other volcanic edifices each more than 500 m high, included in an area about 50–100 km in diameter. On the basis of the sea-floor topography, the southeastern limit of the hotspot area is located about 20 km east of the base of Macdonald, where it is defined by the 3950 m isobath. At the edge of the hotspot area, there is a marked deepening of the seafloor from c.3900 m down to 4000–4300 m. The deeper sea-floor is faulted and heavily sedimented. The Macdonald volcano itself stands 3760 m above the surrounding seafloor, and has a basal diameter of 45 km. Its summit in January 1987 was 39 m below sea level, and it seems likely that Macdonald will emerge at the surface in the near future. Recent (March and November 1986) phreatic explosions on Macdonald Seamount erupted fragments of ultramafic and mafic plutonic blocks together with basic lapilli (volcaniclastic sand). The plutonic blocks have been variably altered and metamorphosed, and in some cases show signs of mineralisation (disseminated sulphides). The blocks presumably come from deeper levels in the volcanic system. The volcanics so far dredged from Macdonald consist of olivine and clinopyroxene cumulus-enriched basalts, evolved basalts, and mugearite. On the basis of incompatible element variations, simple crystal fractionation seems to be controlling the chemical evolution of Macdonald magmas.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Offset Spreading Center located between 12°52′ and 12°54′ N on the East Pacific Rise (Macdonald and Fox, 1983) has been studied in 1982 and 1984 with submersible Cyana and in 1983 with the deep towed vehicle Seamarc I. The two O.S.C. segments, about 1.5 km apart and 4 km in length, separated by a ‘depression’ (about 100 m in depth) show different volcano-tectonic settings. The Western Spreading Center (WSC) segment is characterised mainly by recent volcanic constructional features, while the Eastern Spreading Center (ESC) is highly fissured and consists essentially of older pillow-lava terrain. The intervening ‘depression’ located between the two segments is floored by small constructional mounds (〈10 m in height) of pillow lava. The crust of both segments becomes older along strike towards their respective tips. However, the W.S.C. comprises generally younger flows than does the E.S.C. A small central volcano (80 m in height and 1 km in diameter) located near 12°51′ N near the Southern tip of the W.S.C. contains a different type of volcanics than that found on both spreading centers. The volcanics collected along the O.S.C. ridges are depleted tholeiites, with low K2O (〈0.15%), Na2O (〈3%) and TiO2 (〈1.76%) contents, comparable to other MORB from the axial graben of the E.P.R. south of the area of overlap. Instead the specimen from the small volcano is enriched in K2O (〉0.2%), Na2O (〉3%) and TiO2 (2%). Although there is a morphological overlap of the spreading centers in the study area there is no overlap in the present active axial volcanic zones. The bottom observations suggest that the Western spreading center is younger than the E.S.C. and thus that the W.S.C. could be propagating to the south.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Eighty samples of submarine basaltic lava were sampled from an 8 km segment of the floor and walls of the inner rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during the French American Mid-Ocean Undersea Study (project Famous). The samples were collected from outcrops and talus slopes by the three submersibles: Alvin, Archimede, and Cyana at water depths of about 2600 meters. The early formed mineral content of the pillow lavas' glassy margins enables classification of the rocks into 5 types: (1) olivine basalt, (2) picritic basalt, (3) plagioclase-olivine-pyroxene basalt, (4) aphyric basalt, and (5) plagioclase-rich basalt. Chemical and mineralogical study indicates that at least 4 types are directly interrelated and that types (1) and (2) are higher-temperature, primitive lavas, and types (3) and (4) are lower-temperature, differentiated lavas derived from the primitive ones by crystal-liquid differentiation. The plagioclase-rich basalts also have a chemical composition of their glass comparable to that of the most differentiated basalts (types 3 and 4) but they differ in their greater amount of early formed plagioclase (12–35%). In general, the mineralogical variation across the rift valley shows an assymetrical distribution of the major basalt types. Despite the mineralogical diversity of the early formed crystals, the chemistry of the basalt glasses indicates a symmetrical and a gradual compositional change across the rift valley. Based primarily on their chemistry, the rock types 1 and 2 occupy an axial zone 1.1 km wide and make up the central volcanic hills. Differentiated lavas (types 3, 4) occupy the margins and walls of the inner rift valley and also occur near the center of the rift valley between the central hills. FeO/MgO ratios of olivine and coexisting melt indicate that the average temperature of eruption was 40 ° C higher for the primitive melts (types 1 and 2). Aside from major elements trends, the higher temperature character of the primitive basalts is shown by their common content of chrome spinel. The thickness of manganese oxide and palagonite on glassy lava provide an estimate of age. In a general fashion the relative age of the various volcanic events follow the compositional zoning observed in the explored area. Most of the youngest samples are olivine basalt of the axial hills. Most older samples occur in the margins of the rift valley (West and N.E. part of explored area) but are significantly younger than the spreading age of the crust on which they are erupted. Intermediate lava types occur mainly east of the rift valley axis and in other areas where plagioclase—olivine—pyroxene basalt and aphyric basalt are present. The above relations indicate that the diverse lava types were erupted from a shallow, zoned magma chamber from fissures distributed over the width of the inner rift valley and elongate parallel to it. Differentiation was accomplished by cooling and crystallization of plagioclase, olivine, and clinopyroxene toward the margins of the chamber. The centrally located hills were built by the piling up of frequent eruption of mainly primitive lavas which also are the youngest flows. In contrast smaller and less frequent eruptions of more differentiated lavas were exposed on both sides of the rift valley axis.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1157
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Still photographs and video images collected along the Neovolcanic Zone of the East Pacific Rise from 10°15′N to 11°53′N show that recent volcanic sheet flows, possibly less than 100 years old, are superimposed on an older sediment-laden pillow terrane. This recent activity is restricted to a narrow zone that crosses two topographic highs at 10°55′N and 11°26′N and diminishes along-axis away from these highs. The association of recent sheet flows with older flows and collapse structures on the overlapping spreading centers at 11°45′N supports the evolutionary model for the occurrence and evolution of overlapping spreading centers by MacDonald and others (1986, 1988).
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0012-821X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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