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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-8477
    Keywords: age-structured population dynamics ; ESS ; age at maturity ; size-dependent mortality ; freshwater clams ; predation ; castrating parasitism ; stochasticity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We studied the evolution of age at maturity in freshwater clams of the genus Anodonta in relation to their ecology. We analysed an age-structured density-dependent population dynamics model, which we developed for freshwater clams, using several different options for density dependence. As evolutionary optimality criteria we applied both the maximization of a fitness measure (either intrinsic rate of increase or expected lifetime fecundity) and the concept of evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs). All three evolutionary criteria yielded estimates which were too high for the optimal age at maturity in a deterministic model with a constant survival rate. The predictions are improved when size-selective predation is included in the model. Mature clams also face a risk of infection by castrating parasites, which would select for delayed maturity. Variable newborn survival selects for earlier reproduction, though the observed levels of stochasticity probably have a negligible effect.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: biomonitoring ; freshwater bivalves ; Unionidae ; valve movements
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of source and caging on the valve movements of the freshwater unionid mussel (Anodonta anatina) were studied in a reciprocal transplant experiment between a lake and its outflow. Caged mussels were moved and compared with those remaining in their natural environment on the lake or river bottom. At both sites, the mussels from the study site and the transplanted mussels from the opposite site were monitored simultaneously. In river the averaged weighted valve openness was higher and the number of valve movements was lower than in the lake. The mussels monitored in the lake exhibited a diurnal rhythm of valve movements which differed between the lake-bottom and the caged animals. Caging was found to increase valve openness. On the other hand, little variation appeared in valve openness between caged and bottom animals in the river, where diurnal rhythms were almost nonexistent. In the river the valve movements were more variable in respect to time than in the lake.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1522-9602
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract We explore evolutionarily stable co-evolution of host-macroparasite interactions in a discrete-time two-species population dynamics model, in which the dynamics may be stable, cyclic or chaotic. The macroparasites are assumed to harm host individuals through decreased reproductive output. Hosts may develop costly immune responses to defend themselves against parasites. Parasites compete with conspecifics by adjusting their fecundities. Overall, the presence of both parasites and the immune response in hosts produces more stable dynamics and lower host population sizes than that observed in the absence of the parasites. In our evolutionary analyses, we show that maximum parasite fecundity is always an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), irrespective of the type of population interaction, and that maximum parasite fecundity generally induces a minimum parasite population size through over-exploitation of the host. Phenotypic polymorphisms with respect to immunity in the host species are common and expected in ESS host strategies: the benefits of immunication depend on the frequency of the immune hosts in the population. In particular, the steady-state proportions of immune hosts depend, in addition to all the parameters of the parasite dynamics only on the cost of immunity and on the virulence of parasites in susceptible hosts. The implicit ecological dynamics of the host-parasite interaction affect the proportion of immune host individuals in the population. Furthermore, when changes in certain population parameters cause the dynamics of the host-parasite interaction to move from stability to cyclicity and then to chaos, the proportion of immune hosts tends to decrease; however, we also detected counter-examples to this result. As a whole, incorporating immunological and genetic aspects, as well as life-history trade-offs, into host-macroparasite dynamics produces a rich extension to the patterns observed in the models of ecological interactions and epidemics, and deserves more attention than is currently the case.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Northern cod, comprising populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) off southern Labrador and eastern Newfoundland, supported major fisheries for hundreds of years. But in the late 1980s and early 1990s, northern cod underwent one of the worst collapses in the history of fisheries. The Canadian ...
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: We have developed a global biogeographic classification of the mesopelagic zone to reflect the regional scales over which the ocean interior varies in terms of biodiversity and function. An integrated approach was necessary, as global gaps in information and variable sampling methods preclude strictly statistical approaches. A panel combining expertise in oceanography, geospatial mapping, and deep-sea biology convened to collate expert opinion on the distributional patterns of pelagic fauna relative to environmental proxies (temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen at mesopelagic depths). An iterative Delphi Method integrating additional biological and physical data was used to classify biogeographic ecoregions and to identify the location of ecoregion boundaries or inter-regions gradients. We define 33 global mesopelagic ecoregions. Of these, 20 are oceanic while 13 are ‘distant neritic.’ While each is driven by a complex of controlling factors, the putative primary driver of each ecoregion was identified. While work remains to be done to produce a comprehensive and robust mesopelagic biogeography (i.e., reflecting temporal variation), we believe that the classification set forth in this study will prove to be a useful and timely input to policy planning and management for conservation of deep-pelagic marine resources. In particular, it gives an indication of the spatial scale at which faunal communities are expected to be broadly similar in composition, and hence can inform application of ecosystem-based management approaches, marine spatial planning and the distribution and spacing of networks of representative protected areas
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-12-19
    Description: Highlights: • The Subpolar Front is distinct along its northern edge but to the south it forms a more diffuse zone. • North-south water-mass hydrography is strongest down to depths of 500–800 m. • The frontal biogeographic signature is strong near the surface but decreases with greater depth. • This strong surface feature is therefore not a good predictor of deep pelagic biogeography. Broad-scale patterns in the distribution of deep-sea pelagic species and communities are poorly known. An important question is whether biogeographic boundaries identified from surface features are important in the deep mesopelagic and bathypelagic. We present community analyses of discrete-depth samples of mesozooplankton and micronekton to full-ocean depth collected in the area where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is crossed by the Subpolar Front. The results show that the distributional discontinuity associated with the front, which is strong near the surface, decreases with increasing depth. Both the frontal separation near the surface and the community convergence at increasing depths were clearer for mesozooplankton than for micronekton
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2009-10-01
    Print ISSN: 1051-0761
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-5582
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley on behalf of Ecological Society of America (ESA).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2009-11-23
    Description: Dolgov, A. V., Johannesen, E., Heino, M., and Olsen, E. 2010. Trophic ecology of blue whiting in the Barents Sea. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 483–493. Blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) are distributed throughout the North Atlantic, including the Norwegian and Barents Seas. In recent years, both abundance and distribution of blue whiting in the Barents Sea have increased dramatically. Therefore, to evaluate the trophic impact of this increase, we analysed the diet of the species. In all, 54 prey species or taxa were identified, the main prey being krill. However, the diet varied geographically and ontogenetically: the proportion of fish in the diet was higher in large blue whiting and in the north of the range. Blue whiting overlap geographically with other pelagic species at the edge of their distribution in the Barents Sea, with juvenile herring in the south, with polar cod in the north, and with capelin in the northeast. The overlap in diet between blue whiting and these other pelagic species ranged from 6 to 86% and was greatest with capelin in areas where both species feed on hyperiids and krill. The importance of blue whiting as prey for predatory fish was highest in the areas of greatest abundance, but overall, blue whiting were seemingly unimportant as prey of piscivorous fish in the Barents Sea.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-07-01
    Description: Heino, M., Baulier, L., Boukal, D. S., Ernande, B., Johnston, F. D., Mollet, F. M., Pardoe, H., Therkildsen, N. O., Uusi-Heikkilä, S., Vainikka, A., Arlinghaus, R., Dankel, D. J., Dunlop, E. S., Eikeset, A. M., Enberg, K., Engelhard G. H., Jørgensen, C., Laugen, A. T., Matsumura, S., Nusslé, S., Urbach, D., Whitlock, R., Rijnsdorp, A. D., and Dieckmann, U. 2013. Can fisheries-induced evolution shift reference points for fisheries management? – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70: 707–721. Biological reference points are important tools for fisheries management. Reference points are not static, but may change when a population's environment or the population itself changes. Fisheries-induced evolution is one mechanism that can alter population characteristics, leading to “shifting” reference points by modifying the underlying biological processes or by changing the perception of a fishery system. The former causes changes in “true” reference points, whereas the latter is caused by changes in the yardsticks used to quantify a system's status. Unaccounted shifts of either kind imply that reference points gradually lose their intended meaning. This can lead to increased precaution, which is safe, but potentially costly. Shifts can also occur in more perilous directions, such that actual risks are greater than anticipated. Our qualitative analysis suggests that all commonly used reference points are susceptible to shifting through fisheries-induced evolution, including the limit and “precautionary” reference points for spawning-stock biomass, Blim and Bpa, and the target reference point for fishing mortality, F0.1. Our findings call for increased awareness of fisheries-induced changes and highlight the value of always basing reference points on adequately updated information, to capture all changes in the biological processes that drive fish population dynamics.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: This paper evaluates whether effort regulation could achieve the goal of protecting low-abundance species in mixed fisheries. We construct a two-species bio-economic model and compare the stock abundance ratio in the end of the fishing season with the ratio prior to the fishing. Fishers’ profit maximization problem is governed by three key factors: (i) the overall efficiency of catching different species (catchability), (ii) the price of different species, and (iii) their ability to catch the favoured species separately from the less-favoured species (separability). Using a Monte Carlo sampling of feasible parameters space, we show that effort regulation has good chances (87% of the cases) of maintaining the end stock ratio near equal levels (1/2〈 stock ratio 〈2) when the initial stock ratio is equal. If the initial stock ratio is not equal, however, there is a high risk (about 50% of the cases) that effort control increases differences in the relative species abundances, rather than diminishing them. The effects depend on whether the key factors determining fishing profitability are counteracting or reinforcing each other, and their relative strength. Our results warn against placing too much faith on the ability of effort regulation to protect species at low abundances from excessive exploitation.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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