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  • 1
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    In:  [Poster] In: AGU Chapman Conference on Submarine Volcanism, 29.01.-03.02.2017, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia .
    Publication Date: 2017-11-28
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Highlights • Petrogenesis of highly-depleted basalt • Subarc residual mantle and flux melting beneath an arc or back-arc environment • Residual eclogite and partial melting of subducted altered oceanic crust. Abstract Seafloor spreading in the Woodlark Basin is taking place on pre-existing arc crust that was produced by the subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate into the Pocklington Trough (now inactive) to the south during the Paleogene. The Woodlark Basin has a unique tectonic setting characterized by two surrounding subduction zones. To the east, a spreading ridge is also currently being subducted beneath the Solomon Arc. Moreover, long-term subduction of the Pacific Plate occurred in this area, which was halted by the collision of the Ontong–Java Plateau with the Vitiaz Trench at ca. 10 Ma. Any one of these subduction zones could have influenced the mantle beneath the Woodlark Basin. In this study, basalts from the eastern Woodlark Basin spreading center (EWLB; eastern Woodlark Basin basalts) were analyzed for major and trace element compositions and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions to investigate the melting processes and mantle heterogeneity in this unusual tectonic setting. Our results show that the EWLB can be classified into three types based on major and trace elements, and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic characteristics: normal EWLB (N-EWLB), very depleted EWLB (VD-EWLB), and ultra-depleted EWLB (UD-EWLB). N-EWLB are similar to normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB) and comprise most of the EWLB. The EWLB formed from local mantle, which is similar to depleted MORB mantle. VD-EWLB are more depleted than N-EWLB and have a weak subduction fingerprint. These rocks are characterized by increasing Nb/La with increasing Sm/La, which is a trend that is not produced by peridotite melting. As such, VD-EWLB may have formed by melting of a source containing residual eclogite that had previously undergone low-degree partial melting during subduction, leaving residual rutile in the source. UD-EWLB are extremely depleted relative to global MORB, have elevated H2O/Ce and Ba/Nb ratios similar to back-arc basin basalts (BABB), and lower concentrations of H2O and Ba than N-MORB. We propose that UD-EWLB was derived from sub-arc residual mantle that was enriched by fluid and then experienced melt depletion. The subduction fingerprints in the VD- and UD-EWLB are not related to the current ridge subduction or earlier, long-term subduction of the Pacific Plate in the northeast of the basin, as they are geochemically distinct from the Solomon Arc, which was strongly influenced by both these subduction systems. Instead, we suggest that the subduction fingerprint of the VD- and UD-EWLB was produced during Paleogene subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate to the south.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The 4·0–3·6 Ma Don Manuel igneous complex (DMIC), central Chile, provides a window into igneous processes involved in magma genesis associated with porphyry-style copper mineralization. This study uses petrographic, petrological, geochemical and isotopic data to examine the evolution of magmas from the mid- to lower-crustal source region to shallow emplacement. The data provide evidence for progressive oxidation of magma during differentiation and ascent, fractionation of Cl from S through degassing, and the late-stage, near-solidus removal of Cl from the system. Magmas of basaltic andesite to rhyolite composition were produced by polybaric differentiation of hydrous parental mafic magmas. Variations in crustal differentiation depths led to variable suppression of plagioclase saturation that is recorded in distinctive strontium versus anorthite evolution patterns. Hydrous, derivative magmas generated over a wide range of pressures were episodically emplaced into the shallow crust at depths between 3·5 and 5 km. Intermediate porphyry dikes closely associated with copper mineralization contain diverse crystal cargoes indicating significant magma mixing. These crystal cargoes represent samples of crystal mush entrained from different depths, as well as crystals originating in different magmas and crystals grown in situ from hybridized magmas. Mafic enclaves containing plagioclase and amphibole compositions that match those of the basaltic andesites occur within biotite tonalite, testifying to magma mingling during ascent. Sulfur and chlorine contents of apatite within the different DMIC units record variable degassing and decoupling of volatile components with sulfur showing variations of three orders of magnitude compared with one order of magnitude for chlorine. The hypabyssal nature of the DMIC affords a detailed, integrated record of magmatic differentiation processes occurring within trans-crustal magmatic systems of the sort thought to characterize many crustal arc settings and play a fundamental role in driving porphyry-style copper mineralization.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-30
    Description: Highlights • New 40Ar/39Ar age and geochemical (major, trace element, Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope) data are presented from the Walvis Ridge, belonging to the Tristan-Gough hotspot track in the South Atlantic. • The entire Tristan-Gough hotspot system, including Walvis Ridge, display a spatially continuous age progression. • The Gough-type component is the dominant geochemical flavor of the Tristan-Gough plume and has also been identified in the Discovery and Shona hotspot systems. • The geochemical heterogeneity in the South Atlantic DUPAL region can be reproduced by mixing of Gough-type enriched mantle with continental crust and a FOZO/PREMA-like component. • The HIMU-type alkalic lavas on the Walvis Ridge and older part of Shona hotspot track are ∼30 Ma younger in age than the EMI-type primarily tholeiitic basement lavas at a given locality. Abstract Long-lived spatial geochemical zonation of the Tristan-Gough and Discovery hotspot tracks and temporal variations from EMI-type basement to HIMU-type late-stage volcanism at the Walvis Ridge and Shona hotspot tracks point to a complex evolution and multiple source areas for the South Atlantic hotspots. Here we report 40Ar/39Ar age and geochemical (major and trace element, Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope) data for samples from 16 new sites on the Walvis Ridge. This aseismic ridge is the oldest submarine expression of the Tristan-Gough mantle plume and represents the initial reference locality of the EMI end member in the South Atlantic Ocean. The EMI-type lavas display an excellent age progressive trend of ∼31 mm/a along the entire Tristan-Gough hotspot track, indicating constant plate motion over a relatively stationary melt anomaly over the last ∼115 Ma. The Gough-type EMI composition of the Tristan-Gough hotspot track is the dominant composition on the 〉70 Ma part of the Walvis Ridge, the Etendeka and Parana flood basalts, and along the Gough sub-track, extending from DSDP Site 525A on the SW Walvis Ridge to Gough Island, whereas Tristan-type EMI dominates on the Tristan Track, extending from DSDP Sites 527 and 528 to Tristan da Cunha Island. Gough-type EMI is also the dominant composition of the northern Discovery and Shona hotspot tracks, suggesting that these hotspots tap a common source reservoir. The continuous EMI-type supply over ≥132 Ma, coupled with high 3He/4He (〉10 RA), points to a deep-seated reservoir for this mantle material. The Tristan and Southern Discovery EMI-type flavors can be reproduced by mixing of the Gough-type component with (1) FOZO/PREMA to produce Tristan-type lavas, and (2) marine sediments or upper continental crust to generate the Southern Discovery-type composition. South Atlantic hotspots with EMI-type compositions overlie the margin (1 % ∂Vs velocity contour) of the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP), which may promote the emergence of geochemical “zonation”. The St. Helena HIMU-type volcanism, however, is located above internal portions of the LLSVP, possibly reflecting a layered LLSVP.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-07
    Description: Highlights • The youngest known (2 Ma) volcanically-active subduction system. • Exceptionally diverse range of magma compositions coeval and spatially juxtaposed. • Mixing of an upwelling asthenospheric mantle melt and a slab melt. • Modern example of an immature subduction system building its proto forearc. • Modern analog of the environment where SSZ ophiolites lithosphere forms. Abstract The development of ideas leading to a greater understanding of subduction initiation is limited by the scarcity of present-day examples. Furthermore, the few examples identified so far unfortunately provide few insights into the nature of magmatism at the inception of subduction. Here we report new observations from the Matthew and Hunter (M&H) subduction zone, a very young subduction zone located in the South-West Pacific. Tectonics of the area show it is younger than 2 Ma, making the M&H the youngest known volcanically-active subduction system and hence providing unique insights into the earliest stages of subduction initiation. Volcanism in this area comprises an exceptionally diverse range of contemporaneously erupting magma compositions which are spatially juxtaposed. Pb isotopic compositions and abundance of LILE and REE strongly suggest melting of upwelling asthenospheric mantle (Indian MORB) and subducted oceanic crust (Pacific MORB of the South Fiji Basin) and the mixing of these two components. Volcanism occurs much closer to the trench compared to volcanism in more mature subduction zones. We demonstrate that the M&H subduction zone is a modern example of an immature subduction system at the stage of pre-arc, near-trench magmatism. It is not yet building an arc but what we propose to call a Subduction Initiation Terrane (SITER). Today, the proto-forearc of the M&H subduction zone is a collage of these SITERs, coeval back-arc domains and remnants of pre-existing terranes including old Vitiaz Arc crust. The M&H area represents a modern analog of a Supra Subduction Zone setting where potentially a majority of ophiolites have formed their crustal and lithospheric components. Present-day magmatism in the M&H area therefore provides clues to understanding unforeseen distribution of contrasted magmatic rock types in fossil forearcs, whether they are at the front of mature subduction zones or in ophiolites.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-11
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-04-25
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-10
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-11
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-01-11
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