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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: J NO 2 ; NO2 photolysis ; atmospheric photochemistry ; J NO 2measurement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract An instrument, specifically designed for measurements from a balloon platform in the stratosphere, has been used to obtain ground-level values of the atmospheric photodissociation coefficient of nitrogen dioxide, J NO 2.A typical clear-sky value is 8.0×10-3 s-1 when the solar zenith angle is 40°. Measurements were made as a function of solar zenith angle and correlated with a calibrated Eppley UV radiometer. It is shown that J NO 2may be expressed as a simple function of the radiometer output so that estimates of J NO 2can be made using just an upward looking radiometer to an accuracy of about 20%. The measurements are also found to be in good agreement with calculations of J NO 2using a simplified isotropic multiple scattering computer routine.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Atmosphere ; photolysis ; nitrogen dioxide ; photodissociation coefficient ; temperature effect
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The photodissociation coefficient, J NO2 of NO2 in the atmosphere was calculated at 235 and 298 K using the measured temperature dependences of the absorption cross-sections and quantum yields. These calculations gave a ratio J NO2(298 K)/J NO2(235 K)=1.155±0.010 which is only weakly dependent on altitude, surface albedo and solar zenith angle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: J NO 2 ; NO2 photolysis ; atmospheric photochemistry ; J NO 2 measurement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The photodissociation coefficient of NO2, J NO 2, has been measured from a balloon platform in the stratosphere. Results from two balloon flights are reported. High Sun values of J NO 2 measured were 10.5±0.3 and 10.3±0.3×10-3 s-1 at 24 and 32 km respectively. The decrease in J NO 2 at sunset was monitored in both flights. The measurements are found to be in good agreement with calculations of J NO 2 using a simplified isotropic multiple scattering computer routine.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reactions of O3 with CH3ONO and C2H5ONO were studied using infrared absorption spectroscopy in a static reactor at temperatures between 298 and 352K. Both reactions followed simple second-order kinetics forming the corresponding nitrate: The rate coefficients are given by \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$\log _{10} {\rm}k_1 ({\rm cm}^{\rm 3} /{\rm molc} \cdot {\rm sec}) = (- 12.17 \pm 0.23) - (\frac{{5315 \pm 172}}{{2.303{\rm}T}})$$\end{document} \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$\log _{10} {\rm}k_2 ({\rm cm}^{\rm 3} /{\rm molc} \cdot {\rm sec}) = (- 15.50 \pm 0.16) - (\frac{{2351 \pm 116}}{{2.303{\rm}T}})$$\end{document}.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results are reported from airborne measurements of NO, NO2, O3, and CO obtained in the free troposphere (FT) and boundary layer (BL) over the western U.S. and eastern Pacific during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 (CITE 2) in summer 1986. The aircraft instrumentation and the CITE 2 flight protocols are described, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs. Over the ocean the median mixing ratios for NO and NO2 were found to be 4.0 and 10.4 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), respectively, in the BL and 12.4 and 18.0 pptv in the FT; the corresponding values over land were 34.5 and 75.0 pptv in the BL and 13.0 and 36.0 pptv in the FT. in continental air masses. NO(x) is shown to be positively correlated with O3 and CO and negatively correlated with dewpoint over the ocean, whereas over land NO(x) was positively correlated with O3, CO, and dewpoint.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 10205-10
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The advantages of tunable-diode-laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) for measuring trace atmospheric gases are universality, positive identification, good sensitivity, and rapid response time. A TDLAS system is described which is capable of making measurements aboard an aircraft. The instrument was employed during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE) 2 program to measure NO2 on 11 flights and HNO3 on five flights. Detection limits were determined to be 25 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) for NO2 and 75 pptv for HNO3 with response times of 3 min. This was sufficient to permit measurements of NO2 in the free troposphere and HNO3 in the continental boundary layer a significant fraction of the time.
    Keywords: LASERS AND MASERS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 10147-10
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The source strength of atmospheric trace gases from natural ecosystems must be quantified in order to assess the effect of such inputs on the background tropospheric chemistry. A static chamber technique and a gas exchange technique were used to determine the emissions of nitrous oxide from five sites within the Hudson Bay Lowland, as part of the Northern Wetland Study. Two mechanisms, one diffusive and the other episodic, were found likely to be responsible for the emissions of nitrous oxide. The annual diffusive flux ranged from -3.8 mg(N2O)/sq m in a treed bog to 7.9 mg(N2O)/sq m in an open fen. The addition of the episodic flux, increased this range to -2.1 mg(N2O)/sq m and 18.5 mg(N2O)/sq m respectively. These episodic emissions occurred in from 2.5% to 16.7% of the samples during the late summer peak emission period. Since the gas exchange rate could not detect the episodic emissions, it was found to be a poor method for water emission rate determination within the wetland. LANDSAT-Thermatic Mapper (TM) imagery was used to scale the emissions, from the chamber level to an integrated average over the entire Hudson Bay Lowland. The total emission rate of N2O from the Hudson Bay Lowland, was determined to be 1.2 Gg(N2O)/year, of which 80% was attributed to episodic emissions.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; D1; p. 1573-1588
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Over 240 measurements of nitric acid (HNO3) were made in the free troposphere as well as in the boundary layer. Marine HNO3 measurement results were strikingly similar to results from GAMETAG and other past atmospheric field experiments. The marine boundary layer HNO3 average, 62 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptv), was 1/3 lower than the marine free tropospheric average, 108 pptv, suggesting that the boundary layer is a sink for tropospheric nitric acid, probably by dry deposition. Nitric acid measurements on a nighttime continental flight gave a free tropospheric average of 218 pptv, substantially greater than the daytime continental free tropospheric 5-flight average of 61 pptv. However, the nighttime results may be influenced by highly convective conditions that existed from thunderstorms in the vicinity during that night flight. The continental boundary layer HNO3 average of 767 pptv is an order of magnitude greater than the free tropospheric average, indicating that the boundary layer is a source of free tropospheric HNO3. The distribution of continental boundary layer HNO3 data, from averages of 123 over rural Nevada and Utah to 1057 pptv in the polluted San Joaquin Valley of California suggest a close tie between boundary layer HNO3 and anthropogenic activity.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA-TM-103470 , NAS 1.15:103470
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The radical amplifier as a method for measuring radical concentrations in the atmosphere has received renewed attention lately. In principle, it can measure the total concentration of HO(x) and RO(x) radicals by reacting ambient air with high concentrations of CO (3-10 percent) and NO (2-6 ppmv), and measuring the NO2 produced.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: SRI International Corp., Local Measurement of Tropospheric HO(x); 1 p
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  • 10
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