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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 33 (1961), S. 1298-1301 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Although the Apollo 16 mission landed in the feldspathic lunar highlands, mass-balance models suggest that there is a 5-6% mare component in the mature soils collected at the site. Only one mare basalt greater than 1 cm was found and two surveys of 2-4 mm particles found that less than 1% of this size fraction is mare basalt. Similar surveys of the less than 1 mm size fraction of A16 soils found very little lithic mare basalt, but several percent of basaltic green, yellow, and orange glass. The green glass beads were identified as VLT picritic glass and the orange/yellow glass shards were a mix of high and low Ti mare-like glass, high-Al basaltic glass, and KREEPy glasses. Most previous studies of glasses in the A16 regolith were surveys that identified a high proportion of feldspathic glass because most of the glass is produced by local impacts. Because the number of mafic glasses found was low, few compositional groupings were identified. As part of our ongoing study of the mafic components of the Apollo 16 site, we specifically targeted mafic glasses from Apollo 16, selecting against the more feldspathic glasses. In this way we were able to identify over 300 mafic glasses (greater than 10 wt % FeO). We present here the major- and trace-element chemistry of the main glass groups and discuss the likely provenance of each group.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Crust as Sampled by Basins and Craters; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: This report casts the initial results of the traverse and science investigations by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit at Gusev crater [1] in terms of data sets commonly used in field geologic investigations: Local mapping of geologic features, analyses of selected samples, and their location within the local map, and the regional context of the field traverse in terms of the larger geologic and physiographic region. These elements of the field method are represented in the MER characterization of the Gusev traverse by perspective-based geologic/morphologic maps, the placement of the results from Mossbauer, APXS, Microscopic Imager, Mini-TES and Pancam multispectral studies in context within this geologic/ morphologic map, and the placement of the overall traverse in the context of narrow-angle MOC (Mars Orbiter Camera) and descent images. A major campaign over a significance fraction of the mission will be the first robotic traverse of the ejecta from a Martian impact crater along an approximate radial from the crater center. The Mars Exploration Rovers have been conceptually described as 'robotic field geologists', that is, a suite of instruments with mobility that enables far-field traverses to multiple sites located within a regional map/image base at which in situ analyses may be done. Initial results from MER, where the field geologic method has been used throughout the initial course of the investigation, confirm that this field geologic model is applicable for remote planetary surface exploration. The field geologic method makes use of near-field geologic characteristics ('outcrops') to develop an understanding of the larger geologic context through continuous loop of rational steps focused on real-time hypothesis identification and testing. This poster equates 'outcrops' with the locations of in situ investigations and 'regional context' with the geology over distance of several kilometers. Using this fundamental field geologic method, we have identified the basic local geologic materials on the floor of Gusev at this site, their compositions and likely lithologies, origins, processes that have modified these materials, and their potential significance in the interpretation of the regional geology both spatially and temporally.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Missions; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Moon has been underrated as a source of H, N, C, and other elements essential to support life and to provide fuel for rockets. There is enough of these elements in each cubic meter of typical lunar soil to provide a substantial lunch for two, if converted to edible forms. The average amount of C per square meter of the lunar surface to a depth of 2 m is some 35 percent of the average amount per square meter tied up in living organisms on Earth. The water equivalent of H in the upper 2 m of the regolith averages at least 1.3 million liters per square kilometer. Mining of H from a small fraction of the regolith would provide all the rocket fuel needed for thousands of years. These elements can be removed from the soil by heating it to high temperature. Some favor the unproven resources of Phobos, Deimos, or near-Earth asteroids instead of the Moon as a source of extraterrestrial material for use in space, or Mars over the Moon as a site for habitation, partly on the basis that the chemical elements needed for life support and propellant are readily abundant on those bodies, but not on the Moon. Well, the Moon is not as barren of H, C, and N as is commonly perceived. In fact, the elements needed for life support and for rocket fuel are plentiful there, although the ore grades are low. Furthermore, the proximity of the Moon and consequent lower cost of transportation and shorter trip and communication times favor that body as the logical site for early acquisition of resources and extraterrestrial living.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Johnson Space Center, The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, Volume 2; p 393-396
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A rationale for furture exploration of the moon is given. Topics discussed include the objectives of the lunar polar orbiter mission, the mission profile, and general characteristics of the spacraft to be used.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-155186 , JPL-PUB-77-51-VOL-4
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1525-1314
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: On Holsnøy, an island off the coast of Western Norway, an anorthositic complex metamorphosed to granulite facies was partially overprinted by a later eclogite facies metamorphism. Eclogite facies rocks (containing omphacite, garnet, kyanite and hydrous phases such as mica and zoisite) occur in shear zones of various scales and adjacent to veins. Previous studies of shear zones on Holsnøy reported evidence for substantial element mobility (Jamtveit et al., 1990; Mattey et al., 1994). In this work, we compare chemical compositions of granulite and its undeformed eclogitized equivalent adjacent to veins in locations where a single band of granulite can be traced and sampled as it approaches the vein. This tracing is crucial because the pre-granulite rocks cover a substantial compositional range, indicative of a petrologically variable protolith consisting of anorthosite, gabbro and jotunite. We analysed multiple core samples collected across nine separate granulite-eclogite transition zones located at veins in anorthositic, jotunitic and gabbroic protoliths for major and trace elements. For each transition, no compositional difference between the average granulite and average eclogite composition was found at the 90% confidence level except for LOI (loss on ignition), which was consistently significantly higher in the eclogite samples. Although not significant at the 90% confidence level for any single traverse, the average eclogite concentrations of SiO2 , Na2O, Cs, As and Br exceed the average granulite concentrations for eight or all nine of the traverses. For most traverses, statistical analysis of the data limits any gain of SiO2 in the eclogites to no more than a few relative per cent. Other than the introduction of volatile substances, presumably an H2O-rich fluid, eclogitization associated with vein formation was essentially isochemical.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater on Mars contains dark, fine-grained, vesicular rocks interpreted as lavas. Pancam and Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) spectra suggest that all of these rocks are similar but have variable coatings and dust mantles. Magnified images of brushed and abraded rock surfaces show alteration rinds and veins. Rock interiors contain 〈/=25% megacrysts. Chemical analyses of rocks by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer are consistent with picritic basalts, containing normative olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclase, and accessory FeTi oxides. Mossbauer, Pancam, and Mini-TES spectra confirm the presence of olivine, magnetite, and probably pyroxene. These basalts extend the known range of rock compositions composing the martian crust.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Science (ISSN 0036-8075); Volume 305; 5685; 842-845
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: An advanced brassboard (ADBB) of the Mars Miscrobeam Raman Spectrometer is being developed. The probe and spectrograph have been redesigned with improved optics and the electronics have been miniaturized. The modified optical design in the probe and spectrograph provides better spectral resolution than the previous model and enables the probe design to be more compatible with robotic arm deployment. The CCD detector is now cooled thermoelectrically in anticipation of eventual terrestrial field testing of the instrument.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV; LPI-Contrib-1156
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Electrolysis of molten lunar soil or rock is examined as an attractive means of wresting useful raw materials from lunar rocks. It requires only hat to melt the soil or rock and electricity to electrolyze it, and both can be developed from solar power. The conductivities of the simple silicate diopside, Mg CaSi2O6 were measured. Iron oxide was added to determine the effect on conductivity. The iron brought about substantial electronic conduction. The conductivities of simulated lunar lavas were measured. The simulated basalt had an AC conductivity nearly a fctor of two higher than that of diopside, reflecting the basalt's slightly higher total concentration of the 2+ ions Ca, Mg, and Fe that are the dominant charge carriers. Electrolysis was shown to be about 30% efficient for the basalt composition.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. 16th Lunar and Planetary Sci. Conf.; p 44-46
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Meteoritic, solar and terrestrial rare earth distribution abundance in chondritic or ordinary stony meteorites
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Format: text
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