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  • 1
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Moon's center of mass is displaced from its center of figure about 2 km in a roughly earthward direction. Most maria are on the side of the Moon which faces the Earth. It is assumed that the Moon was initially spherically symmetric. The emplacement of mare basalts transfers mass which produces most of the observed center of mass displacement toward the Earth. The cause of the asymmetric distribution of lunar maria was examined. The Moon is in a spin orbit coupled relationship with the Earth and the effect of the Earth's gravity on the Moon is asymmetric. The earth-facing side of the Moon is a gravitational favored location for the extrusion of mare basalt magma in the same way that the topographically lower floor of a large impact basin is a gravitationally favored location. This asymmetric effect increases inversely with the fourth power of the Earth Moon distance. The history of the Earth-Moon system includes: formation of the Moon by accretion processes in a heliocentric orbit ner that of the Earth; a gravitational encounter with the Earth about 4 billion years ago resulting in capture of the Moon into a geocentric orbit and heating of the Moon through dissipation of energy related to tides raised during close approaches to the Earth(5) to produce mare basalt magma; and evolution of the Moon's orbit to its present position, slowly at first to accommodate more than 500 million years during which magmas were extruded.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 32
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Manson impact structure, about 35 km in diameter, is the largest impact crater recognized in the United States. Its center is located near the town of Manson, 29 km west of Fort Dodge, Iowa. The structure is not well known geologically because it is covered by tens of meters of glacial deposits. What is known about the structure was learned mostly from the study of water well cuttings. At Manson the normal Phanerozoic and Proterozoic sedimentary rocks were replaced by centrally uplifted Proterozoic crystalline rocks that are representative of the normal basement: This central uplift is surrounded by completely disrupted rocks which are roughly encircled by peripherally faulted and slumped sequences of normal sedimentary strata. Radially outward normal sedimentary strata are uplifted slightly. Manson, once interpreted as a cryptovolcanic structure, is now considered an impact structure based on its circular shape, its central uplift and the presence of multiple intersecting sets of shock lamellae in quartz grains from the central uplift. The Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum dating results for a microcline separate from the Manson 2-A core in the central uplift is shown. This spectrum is interpreted to indicate a nearly complete degassing of the microcline at the time of the Manson impact. The remainder of the gas released climbs in age with increasing temperature of release. This pattern of the age spectrum is interpreted to represent diffusional loss due to reheating at the time of the impact and during subsequent cooling. Shocked quartz grains, present in the iridium-bearing layer at the K-T boundary throughout the world, have a significantly larger size and are more abundant in the western interior of North America than elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, shocked feldspar and granitic fragments are found at the K-T boundary in North America. These observations indicate the K-T boundary impact must have penetrated continental crust in North America.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Global Catastrophes in Earth History: An Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality; p 70-71
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Structural analyses and chronology of micrometeorite craters on lunar rocks
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-66707
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The lunar microcrater phenomenology is described. The morphology of the lunar craters is in almost all aspects simulated in laboratory experiments in the diameter range from less than 1 nu to several millimeters and up to 60 km/s impact velocity. An empirically derived formula is given for the conversion of crater diameters into projectile diameters and masses for given impact velocities and projectile and target densities. The production size frequency distribution for lunar craters in the crater size range from approximately 1 nu to several millimeters in diameter is derived from various microcrater measurements within a factor of up to 5. Particle track exposure age measurements for a variety of lunar samples have been performed. They allow the conversion of the lunar crater size frequency production distributions into particle fluxes. The development of crater populations on lunar rocks under self-destruction by subsequent meteoroid impacts and crater overlap is discussed and theoretically described. Erosion rates on lunar rocks on the order of several millimeters per 10 yr are calculated. Chemical investigations of the glass linings of lunar craters yield clear evidence of admixture of projectile material only in one case, where the remnants of an iron-nickel micrometeorite have been identified.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Washington The Soviet-Am. Conf. on Cosmochem. of the Moon and Planets, Pt. 2; p 585-603
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: About 5000 microcraters on seven lunar rocks recovered during the Apollo 12 mission have been systematically studied using a stereomicroscope. Based on comparisons with laboratory cratering experiments, at least 95 percent of all millimeter sized craters observed were formed by impacts in which the impact velocity exceeded 10 km/s. The dynamics of particle motion near the moon and the distribution of microcraters on the rocks require an extralunar origin for these impacting particles. The microcrater population on at least one side of all rocks studied was in equilibrium for millimeter sized craters; i.e., statistically, craters a few millimeters in diameter and smaller were being removed by the superposition of new craters at the same rate new craters were being formed. The population of craters on such a surface is directly related to the total population of particles impacting that surface. Crater size distribution data together with an experimentally determined relationship between the crater size and the physical parameters of the impacting particle, yield the mass distribution of interplanetary dust at 1 AU.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: Evolutionary and Phys. Properties of Meteoroids; p 227-239
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Monte Carlo-based computer calculations, as well as analytical approaches utilizing probabilistic arguments, were applied to gain insight into the principal regolith impact processes and their resulting kinetics. Craters 10 to 1500 m in diameter are largely responsible for the overall growth of the regolith. As a consequence the regolith has to be envisioned as a complex sequence of discrete ejecta blankets. Such blankets constitute first-order discontinuities in the evolving debris layer. The micrometeoroid complex then operates intensely on these fresh ejecta blankets and accomplishes only in an uppermost layer of approximately 1-mm thickness. The absolute flux of micrometeoroids based on lunar rock analyses averaged over the past few 10 to the 6th power years is approximately an order of magnitude lower than presentday satellite fluxes; however, there is indication that the flux increased in the past 10 to the 4th power years to become compatible with the satellite data. Furthermore, there is detailed evidence that the micrometeoroid complex existed throughout geologic time.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Soviet-Am. Conf. on Cosmochem. of the Moon and Planets, Pt. 2; p 605-635
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0794
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A computer model based on Monte Carlo techniques was developed to simulate the destruction of lunar rocks by ‘catastrophic rupture’ due to meteoroid impact. Energies necessary to accomplish catastrophic rupture were derived from laboratory experiments. A crater-production rate derived from lunar rocks was utilized to calculate absolute time scales. Calculated median survival times for crystalline lunar rocks are 1.9, 4.6, 10.3, and 22 m.y. for rock masses of 10, 102, 103, and 104 g respectively. Corresponding times of 6, 14.5, 32, and 68 × 106 yr are required, before the probability of destruction reaches 0.99. These results are consistent with absolute exposure ages measured on returned rocks. Some results also substantiate previous conclusions reached by others: the catastrophic rupture process is significantly more effective in obliterating lunar rocks compared to mass wasting by single particle abrasion. The view is also corroborated that most rocks presently on the lunar surface are either exhumed from the regolith or fragments of much larger boulders, rather than primary ejecta excavated from pristine bedrock.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A core drilling program initiated by the Iowa Geological Survey Bureau and U.S. Geological Survey in 1991 and 1992 collected 12 cores totalling over 1200 m from the Manson Impact Structure, a probable K-T boundary structure located in north-central Iowa. Cores were recovered from each of the major structural terranes, with 2 cores (M-3 and M-4) from the Terrace Terrane, 4 cores (M-2, M-2A, M-6, and M-9) from the Crater Moat, and 6 cores (M-1, M-5, M-7, M-8, M-10, and M-11) from the Central Peak. These supplemented 2 central peak cores (1-A and 2-A) drilled in 1953. The cores penetrated five major impact lithologies: (1) sedimentary clast breccia; (2) impact ejecta; (3) central peak crystallite rocks; (4) crystalline clast breccia with sandy matrix; and (5) crystallite clast breccia with a melt matrix. Descriptions and preliminary interpretations of these cores are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 35-36
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics; 11; Sept. 30
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Detailed stereomicroscopic studies of the distribution of microcraters, soil covers, and glass coatings were performed to reconstruct the most recent surface orientations of selected Apollo 14 rocks. Surface orientations could be established for rocks 14053, 14073, 14301, 14303, 14307, 14310, and 14311 (which includes rock 14308). A tentative orientation of rock 14055 is suggested, and comments concerning the surface history of rocks 14302, 14305, and 14318 are presented. The examination of rocks 14066, 14306, and 14321 indicates that these specimens have complicated surface histories that prevent reconstruction of their orientation by the criteria that were established in these stereomicroscopic studies.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: Modern Geology; 3; 1972
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