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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 340 (1989), S. 432-432 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] MANY, perhaps most, stars blow off large quantities of gas in early and late stages of evolution for reasons that are poorly understood. In addition to the dramatic explosions of supernovae, stellar winds are observed that are 106-1010 times as intense as the Sun's, and these can have profound ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Class 0 protostars, the youngest type of young stellar objects, show many signs of rapid development from their initial, spheroidal configurations, and therefore are studied intensively for details of the formation of protoplanetary disks within protostellar envelopes. At millimetre ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Space science reviews 92 (2000), S. 55-68 
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Currently available observational constraints on transport mechanisms in pre-main sequence disks are reviewed. The main observable quantity accessable by imaging the spatial structure of disks is the mass accretion rate, which constrains angular momentum transport, and migration and diffusion of disk material.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0066-4146
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We summarize the properties of FU Orionis variables, and show how accretion disk models simply explain many peculiarities of these objects. FU Ori systems demonstrate that disk accretion in early stellar evolution is highly episodic, varying from ~ 10-7 yr-1 in the low (T Tauri) state to 10-4 yr-1 in the high (FU Ori) state. This variability in mass accretion is matched by a corresponding variability in mass ejection, with mass loss rates reaching ~ 10-1 of the mass accretion rates in outburst. It appears that the FU Ori phenomenon is restricted to early phases of stellar evolution, probably with infall still occuring to the disk, which may help drive repetitive outbursts. Thermal instabilities are a promising way to produce FU Ori disk outbursts, although many uncertainties remain in the theory; triggering by interactions with companion stars on eccentric orbits may also play a role.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: High-resolution echelle spectra have been used to estimate rotational velocities for K and M dwarfs in the Hyades. All of the K dwarfs have rotational velocities less than the instrumental limit of 10 km/s. Most of the M dwarfs with (R - I)K larger than 1.0 have detectable rotational velocities, with v sin i between 10 and 20 km/s. Combining these data with results from the younger Pleiades and Alpha Persei clusters, it is found that G dwarfs spin down from about 100 km/s to about 10 km/s in less than 40 million yr, whereas M dwarfs take an order of magnitude longer to spin down.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor (ISSN 0004-637X); 320; L51-L55
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Further tests of the accretion disk hypothesis for FU Orionis objects are presented. High spectral resolution, high signal to noise, 5820-6830 A and 7500-9370 A spectra of V1057 Cyg reveal a correlation between linewidth and line transition lower excitation potential expected from this hypothesis. The magnitude of the effect compares favorably with that predicted by synthetic disk spectra. Additional evidence for previously documented spectral type and linewidth versus wavelength correlations is also presented. This kinematic evidence strongly supports the accretion disk hypothesis.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 349; 328-334
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A method for separating the 'veiling' continuum often present in T Tauri stars from the underlying photospheric spectrum is described. Echelle observations from 5100 to 6800 A of the partially veiled T Tauri star BP Tau were analyzed to determine the shape of the veiling spectrum. The residuals of the fit indicate the deviation of the veiling spectrum from a simple continuum and identify the location and strength of any emission-line components. It is shown, by means of goodness-of-fit tests, that the spectrum of BP Tau can be decomposed into a normal stellar spectrum plus a smooth veiling continuum with only a few emission lines superposed. The continuum dominates the veiling spectrum in this spectral region; the veiling does not arise from numerous deep photospheric absorption lines that are filled in by weak emission.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (ISSN 0067-0049); 70; 899-914
    Format: text
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  • 8
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The rotational velocities of stars provide important clues to how stars form and evolve. Yet until recently, studies of stellar rotation were limited to stars more massive than the sun. This is beginning to change, and an observational outline of the rotational velocity evolution of stars less massive than the sun can now be provided. Low-mass stars rotate slowly during the early stages of premain-sequence evolution, and spin up as they contract to the main sequence. This spin-up culminates in a brief period of very rapid rotation at an age of order 50 million years. Physical interpretation of this increase in rotation and the subsequent main-sequence spin-down are complicated by the possibility of differential internal rotation. The observed rapidity of spin-down among G dwarfs suggests that initially only the outer convective envelopes of these stars are slowed. The data suggest an intrinsic spread in angular momentum among young stars of the same mass and age, a spread which is apparently minimized by the angular-momentum loss mechanism in old low-mass stars.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Publications (ISSN 0004-6280); 98; 1233-125
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The available spectral type and color data for late-type Pleiades members have been reanalyzed, and new reddening estimates are obtained. New photometry for a small number of stars and a compilation of H-alpha equivalent widths for Pleiades dwarfs are presented. These data are used to examine the location of the rapid rotators in color-magnitude diagrams and the correlation between chromospheric activity and rotation. It is shown that the wide range of angular momenta exhibited by Pleiades K and M dwarfs is not necessarily produced by a combination of main-sequence spin-downs and a large age spread; it can also result from a plausible spread in initial angular momenta, coupled with initial main-sequence spin-down rates that are only weakly dependent on rotation. The new reddening estimates confirm Breger's (1985) finding of large extinctions confined to a small region in the southern portion of the Merope nebula.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 318; 337-355
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Radial velocities and v sin i values for the stars in the Taurus-Auriga region that were found to have strong Ca II H and K emission by Herbig, Vrba, and Rydgren 'HVR', (1986) are reported. Most of the velocities are determined to better than 2 km/s precision. The kinematic properties of the Ca II emission stars with strong Li are found to be indistinguishable from conventional T Tauris in Taurus-Auriga, contrary to HVR. These Li-rich stars also rotate like T Tauris. Most of the stars that lack Li are probable or possible members of the Hyades, in the foreground, and are among the brightest and most active stars in that cluster for their spectral types. It is suggested following Jones and Herbig (1979), that the apparent absence of low-mass stars older than 10 Myr in Taurus-Auriga is real, and is due to the finite lifetime of the cloud.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256); 93; 907-912
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