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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Fluid dynamic aspects of the Antarctic ozone hole phenomena are studied. Data collected by the ER-2 aircraft as part of the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) are used to calculate the potential vorticity distribution on potential temperature surfaces. Most of the ER-2 flights show a monotonic decrease in potential vorticity and nitrous oxide toward the pole on isentropic surfaces.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 11625-11
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The first data obtained from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are presented. These data include emitted infrared radiation, albedo, and estimated scene types for Nov. 15, 1984, as well as measurements of the 'solar constant'. Images from the GOES on the same day are included for comparison with the ERBE scene identification. On an instantaneous basis, clouds appear colder and more reflective than seems to have been noted before. The experiment data will be applied to several key studies of cloud-radiation-climate interactions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: American Meteorological Society, Bulletin (ISSN 0003-0007); 67; 818-824
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The effect of transport on the springtime decline in ozone in the southern polar vortex was investiated using data on long-lived gas tracers (N2O, CH4, CCl4, CH3CCl3, CO, CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) obtained by the ER-2 aircraft in the period between August 23 and September 22 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. It was found that, while the concentrations of long-lived trace gases remained relatively constant for fixed potential temperature and latitude, the ozone mixing ratio over the same period declined by more than 50 percent inside the polar vortex near 18-km altitude. These data indicate a substantial photochemical sink of ozone. The evidence of the zero or negative time tendencies for long-lived trace gases and the meridional and vertical gradients of ozone imply that transport is supplying ozone to the polar region during springtime.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 16779-16
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Illinois Univ. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 2: (NASA-CR-175509); p 384-385
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Illinois Univ. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 2: (NASA-CR-175509); p 71-72
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: In this investigation of relationships between mid-latitude 500 mb anomalies and tropical heating anomalies on the time scales of weeks to seasons are studied using outgoing IR to characterize the tropical convection heating. The data are first used to form 5-day means and the mean seasonal cycle and the interannual variability of seasonal means are then removed. The time scales considered are then between about 10 days and 90 days. By correlating the mid-latitude height anomalies with the tropical precipitation anomalies it can be shown that, on the time scales considered here, the predominant correlation patterns are those associated with Rossby waves propagating from mid-latitudes into the tropics and influencing the tropical convection. The mid-latitude Rossby waves can significantly influence convection to within 5 degrees of the equator.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Res. Rev., 1983; p 350
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The diurnal harmonic in longwave emission in the tropical belt (30 deg N-30 deg S) is estimated from nine years of NOAA polar-orbiting satellite data. The results are compared successfully with Nimbus-7 ERB scanner data and with GOES-West geosynchronous satellite data. An interesting and consistent diurnal variation in longwave emission is found over the regions of intense oceanic convection, such as the ITCZ and SPCZ regions, with a peak-to-peak variation of 6-8 W/sq m and a maximum in the morning (0600-1200 LST). Histogram analysis indicates that this variation is associated with a diurnal variation in convective cloud (about 400 mb). Over regions of very intense convection, a diurnal variation of very high clouds (above 100 mb), which is out of phase with the variations at lower levels in the atmosphere, reduces the magnitude of the diurnal harmonic in longwave emission. It is interesting that histograms based on data averaged over 8-km and 250-km boxes give the same qualitative information about cloud and emission variability.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology (ISSN 0733-3021); 25; 800-812
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Equatorial Kelvin waves have emerged as an important source of westerly momentum for the tropical stratosphere. The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of remotely derived temperatures from Nimbus-7 LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere). It is found that eastward propagating disturbances are present in two independent LIMS data sets. The disturbances manifest themselves consistently at several levels throughout the stratosphere and account for much of the tropical temperature variance out to latitudes where extratropical signals become large. Compelling evidence is found for several distinct phase velocities. Spectral analysis indicates isolated eastward variance at principally two frequencies for both wavenumbers.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 41; 220-235
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Correlations were sought between data sets on exitance radiance and albedos sensed by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Nimbus-7 spacecraft instruments. The emitted exitance (W/sq m) and the albedos measured over the ocean and the land and diurnal global averages are compared. The 5 W/sq m average difference between noon-midnight recorded by the ERBE spacecraft showed that noon-midnight averages can not be used with ERBE data as they have been with Nimbus-7 data.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
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  • 10
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Observations of the stratosphere are analyzed. The behavior of the wind and temperature in the stratosphere is compared to that of the troposphere. Techniques for observing the circulation and temperatures of the stratosphere and the basic circulation and temperature characteristics are described. The propagation of tropospheric planetary waves to the stratosphere and their interaction with the mean flow are studied. The stability of the zonal-mean state in the stratosphere is investigated by calculating the meridional gradient of zonal-mean quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
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