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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 225 (1970), S. 533-534 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We have used the observed properties of the solar wind2 to determine order of magnitude estimates of the characteristic parameters in this interaction. A pressure balance at the stagnation point formed with the streaming pressure of the solar wind leads to a magnetic field build-up of ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A second encounter took place on September 21 1974 but the spacecraft passed the planet on the Sunward side at too great a distance to permit observations inside the planet's bow shock. The third and last encounter (Mercury III) took place on March 16 1975 at which time the spacecraft passed within ...
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  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The nature of ion flow within two ionospheric holes on the nightside of Venus was investigated using ion composition measurements made by the ion mass spectrometer on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter. A comparison of the altitude profiles of the observed ion densities with those expected under diffusive equilibrium conditions indicates that the major ions O(+), NO(+), and O2(+), as well as the minor ions H(+) and He(+) flow upward and away from Venus along the axes of the holes. This result agrees with a quantitative evaluation of the ion flow speeds appearing in expressions derived from the equations for conservation of mass and momentum of the ions and electrons. The analysis shows that all ion species flow upward in the holes because the upward force produced by the plasma pressure gradient exceeds all downward forces. However, the nature of the ion source required to maintain such flow is not known.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 31-37
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: An improved (Mayr et al., 1980) three-dimensional multiconstituent spectral model of the Venus thermosphere dynamics is presented, which describes the diurnal variations in the atmospheric composition (in terms of O, CO, and CO2 densities obtained by ONMS and OIMS, temperature, and wind fields on the basis of simplified theoretical interpretations of data obtained by the Pioneer Venus mission. The improved model accounts for nonlinear processes, includes higher order tidal elements, and describes the major gases in self-consistent form. Also presented is a self-consistent, nonlinear solution from a two-dimensional quasi-axisymmetric spectral model which describes the four-day superrotation in the lower atmosphere.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 5; 9, 19
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Voyager 1 encounter data are used to theoretically examine the interaction of Titan with the solar wind, the Saturn magnetosheath and the Saturn magnetosphere. The spacecraft data comprised magnetometer, plasma wave, radio signal and charged particle measurements. Attention is given to the Alfven (1.9) and Mach (0.57) numbers detected in the Saturn magnetosheath, along with a fast hydrodynamic Mach number of 0.55. Incident plasma interacted with the Titan atmosphere and produced a magnetosphere through mass capture and field-line draping. The tail region was loaded with N(+) and N2(+)/H2CN(+) ions instead of the strong H(+) signals typical of other regions. The magnetotail featured four lobes, and the Titan atmosphere was calculated to lose 10 to the 24th ions/sec. Finally, the Titan internal rotationally aligned magnetic field has an estimated strength of 7 x 10 to the 20th gauss/cu cm.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The flow characteristics of the light ions H(+) and He(+) have been studied in the midnight region of the ionosphere of Venus. Measurements of ion composition, electron and ion temperatures and magnetic fields by instruments onboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter have been used in rite electron and ion equations of conservation of mass and momentum to derive the vertical flow velocities of H(+) and He(+). When average height profiles of the measured quantities were used, H(+) was found to flow upward, accelerating to speeds of almost 1 km/s at the ion-exobase. In a similar fashion, He(+) was found to flow downward into the neutral atmosphere where it is readily quenched by charge transfer reactions. The polarization electric field played an important role in forcing H(+) upward, but did not contribute enough to the He(+) force balance to produce upward flow. At the ion-exobase, the outward electric polarization force on H(+) was shown to be five times the gravitational force. Using an analogy with the terrestrial ion-exosphere, H(+) was inferred to flow upward into the ionotail of Venus and accelerate to escape speeds. A planet averaged escape flux of 1.4 x 10 exp 7/sq cm/s was calculated, which is comparable to hydrogen loss rates estimated by other investigators.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 98; E4; p. 7437-7445.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The component of rigid shell superrotation on Venus is discussed in the context of comparative planetary atmospheres. A simplified, heuristic analysis, utilizing mixed length theory to describe the small scale nonlinear advections of energy and angular momentum, thereby providing a closure of the dynamic system, is presented, on the basis of which a crude estimate of zonal velocity is made. The rigid shell (global average) component on Venus was calculated to be 105 m/sec.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 5; 9, 19
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  • 8
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The Voyager 1 measurements made during the Titan flyby reveal that Saturn's rotating magnetospheric plasma interacts directly with Titan's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. This results from the lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Titan. The interaction induces a magnetosphere which deflects the flowing plasma around Titan and forms a plasma wake downstream. Within the tail of the induced magnetosphere, ions of ionospheric origin flow away from Titan. Just outside Titan's magnetosphere, a substantial ion-exosphere forms from an extensive hydrogen-nitrogen exosphere. The exospheric ions are picked up and carried downstream into the wake by the plasma flowing around Titan. Mass loading produced by the addition of exospheric ions slows the wake plasma down considerably in the vicinity of the magnetopause.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 5; 4, 19
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Thermospheric temperature, composition and wind measurements from the Dynamics Explorer satellite (DE-2) are interpreted using a three dimensional, multiconstituent spectral model. The analysis accounts for tides driven by the absorbed solar radiation as well as energy and momentum coupling involving the magnetosphere and lower atmosphere. Phenomena associated with the annual tide, polar circulation, magnetic storms and substorms are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 5; 4, 19
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Results of a comprehensive morphological analysis of the dayside superthermal ion presence in the dayside ionopause region of Venus made using the Orbiter Ion Mass Spectrometer measurements are presented. There is a strong inbound-outbound difference in both the number and intensity of the superthermal ions with most events detected on the inbound crossing of the ionopause. The ambient energy of the detected ions is comparable to the ram energy of cold ions relative to the moving spacecraft. A comparison of the locations of the superthermal O(+) ion occurrences with respect to other parameters shows that the superthermals are a characteristic of the ionopause transition separating the essentially stationary ionosphere plasma from the flowing ionosheath plasma as deduced by Taylor et al. (1980) from individual examples.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 98; E5; p. 9055-9064.
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