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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: acetylene reduction ; conifer log ; coarse woody debris ; decay ; decomposition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Acetylene reduction was examined periodically for as long as 68 months in the outer and inner bark, sapwood, and heartwood of decaying logs of western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.] western redcedar (Thuja plicata D. Don), Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco], and Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis Dougl. ex Forbes) in the western Oregon Cascade Mountains. Tissues from freshly cut logs from sound trees were unable to reduce acetylene. However, after 18 months of decomposition, acetylene reduction was found in all log tissues except heartwood. Over the 68-month study period, no significant relationship between reduction rate and tissue moisture was found. Acetylene reduction rates differed significantly among tissues, log species, and time of exposure to decomposers. Although acetylene reduction generally showed a steady increase with time, tissues of some species showed a more complex, nonlinear pattern of change. Although the amount of nitrogen fixed is low compared to the total present in decaying logs, it might be an important source of readily available nitrogen for the microbiota responsible for decomposition.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 172 (1995), S. 141-152 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: coarse woody debris ; evaporation ; interception ; leaching ; runoff
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Seasonal and long-term changes in the water balance of conifer logs during the first 8 years of decomposition were studied in an old-growth Pseudotsuga/Tsuga forest in the Oregon Cascade Mountains. Measurements were made of the moisture content of outer bark, inner bark, sapwood, and heartwood and of the flow of water into and out of logs of four species (Abies amabilis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thuja plicata, and Tsuga heterophylla). After the logs had decomposed from 1 to 2 years, 38–47% of the canopy throughfall landing upon them ran off the surface, 29–34% leached from the bottom, and 21–30% was absorbed and evaporated. After 8 years of decomposition, water entering and then leaching from logs increased 1.3 times while runoff decreased a similar amount. The proportion of water stored by and evaporated from logs in this study indicates that in old growth forests they may intercept 2–5% of the canopy throughfall to the forest floor and that, even in early stages of decomposition, they may affect the hydrological cycle of Pacific Northwest old-growth forests.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9761
    Keywords: bark beetle epidemic ; Douglas-fir ; hierarchy theory ; multiple spatial and temporal scales
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A conceptual model of Douglas-fir bark beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) dynamics and associated host tree mortality across multiple spatial and temporal scales was developed, then used to guide a study of the association between the occurrence of beetle- killed trees and factors that might render trees more susceptible to attack. Long-term records of beetle kill showed that beetle epidemics were associated with windstorms and drought at statewide and local spatial scales. At the landscape scale, beetle kill was associated with (i) portions of the landscape that were potentially drier (southern aspects, lower elevations) and (ii) portions of the landscape that had more mature and old-growth conifer vegetation. The patches of beetle-killed trees were aggregated with respect to other patches at scales of approximately 1 and 4 km. At the scale of the individual tree, there was not a strong relationship between beetle kill and resistance to attack measured by tree growth rate prior to attack. Our results show that landscape-scale phenomena and temporal patterns were more strongly correlated with beetle-kill events than was recent growth history at the scale of individual trees. We suggest that the multi-scale approach we employed is useful for elucidating the relative roles of fine- versus coarse-scale constraints on ecological processes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A new model, FORPROD, for estimating the carbon stored in forest products, considers both the manufacture of the raw logs into products and the fate of the products during use and disposal. Data for historical patterns of harvest, manufacturing efficiencies, and product use and disposal were used for estimating the accumulation of carbon in Oregon and Washington forest products from 1900 to 1992. Pools examined were long- and short-term structures, paper supplies, mulch, open dumps, and landfills. The analysis indicated that of the 1,692 Tg of carbon harvested during the selected period, only 396 Tg, or 23%, is currently stored. Long-term structures and landfills contain the largest fraction of that store, holding 74% and 20%, respectively. Landfills currently have the highest rates of accumulation, but total landfill stores are relatively low because they have been used only in the last 40 years. Most carbon release has occurred during manufacturing, 45% to 60% lost to the atmosphere, depending upon the year. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of recycling, landfill decomposition, and replacement rates of long-term structures indicate that changing these parameters by a factor of two changes the estimated fraction of total carbon stored less than 2%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We used an individual-based forest simulator (a gap model) to assess the potential effects of anthropogenic climatic change on conifer forests of the Pacific Northwestern United States. Steady-state simulations suggested that forest zones could be shifted on the order of 500–1000 m in elevation, which could lead to the local extirpation of some high-altitude species. For low-elevation sites, species which currently are more abundant hundreds of kilometers to the south would be favored under greenhouse scenarios. Simulations of transient responses suggested that forest stands could show complex responses depending on initial species composition, stand age and canopy development, and the magnitude and duration of climatic warming. Assumptions about species response to temperature, which are crucial to the model's behaviors, were evaluated using data on species temperature limits inferred from regional distributions. The high level of within-species variability in these data, and other confounding factors influencing species distributions, argue against over-interpreting simulations. We suggest how we might resolve critical uncertainties with further research.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The effects of human trampling and firewood gathering on eight backcountry campsites in the Great Smoky Mountains were surveyed. Sample plots were classified as sitecenter, transition, firewood-gathering area, and control. The canopy in the center of the sites tended to be more open than that of control plots, with the greatest openings occurring at shelter sites in spruce-fir forest. Intensive human trampling in the center of the sites inhibited reproduction of tree species, whereas firewood gathering alone did not. In some cases where canopy opening had occurred, there was an increase in shrub and tree reproduction around the edge of the site. Reduction in the basal area of standing deadwood varied with the type of site; older growth stands were less depleted. Injuries to trees increased tenfold from control areas to the center of the campsites. Smaller fuels were more strongly impacted by trampling and little impacted by firewood gathering. Woody fuels in the 2.5- to 7.6-cm size class were preferred for firewood. A previously constructed carbon cycling model was modified to incorporate removal of firewood and litter on campsites. The model suggested that after extended removal of leaf litter, soil carbon takes 12 to 50 years to recover, but this hypothesis remains to be tested in the field.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2006. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Springer for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Ecosystems 9 (2006): 1041-1050, doi:10.1007/s10021-005-0105-7.
    Description: Recent patterns and projections of climatic change have focused increased scientific and public attention on patterns of carbon (C) cycling and its controls, particularly the factors that determine whether an ecosystem is a net source or sink of atmospheric CO2. Net ecosystem production (NEP), a central concept in C-cycling research, has been used to represent two different concepts by C-cycling scientists. We propose that NEP be restricted to just one of its two original definitions—the imbalance between gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), and that a new term—net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB)—be applied to the net rate of C accumulation in (or loss from; negative sign) ecosystems. NECB differs from NEP when C fluxes other than C fixation and respiration occur or when inorganic C enters or leaves in dissolved form. These fluxes include leaching loss or lateral transfer of C from the ecosystem; emission of volatile organic C, methane, and carbon monoxide; and soot and CO2 from fire. C fluxes in addition to NEP are particularly important determinants of NECB over long time scales. However, even over short time scales, they are important in ecosystems such as streams, estuaries, wetlands, and cities. Recent technological advances have led to a diversity of approaches to measuring C fluxes at different temporal and spatial scales. These approaches frequently capture different components of NEP or NECB and can therefore be compared across scales only by carefully specifying the fluxes included in the measurements. By explicitly identifying the fluxes that comprise NECB and other components of the C cycle, such as net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and net biome production (NBP), we provide a less ambiguous framework for understanding and communicating recent changes in the global C cycle. Key words: Net ecosystem production, net ecosystem carbon balance, gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, autotrophic respiration, heterotrophic respiration, net ecosystem exchange, net biome production, net primary production.
    Keywords: Net ecosystem production ; Net ecosystem carbon balance ; Gross primary production ; Ecosystem respiration ; Autotrophic respiration ; Heterotrophic respiration ; Net ecosystem exchange ; Net biome production ; Net primary production
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: 297623 bytes
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-06-02
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 116 (2011): G00K04, doi:10.1029/2010JG001495.
    Description: Heterotrophic respiration (RH) is a major process releasing carbon to the atmosphere and is essential to understanding carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we review what is known about this flux as related to forest disturbance using examples from North America. The global RH flux from soils has been estimated at 53–57 Pg C yr−1, but this does not include contributions from other sources (i.e., dead wood, heart-rots). Disturbance-related inputs likely account for 20–50% of all RH losses in forests, and disturbances lead to a reorganization of ecosystem carbon pools that influences how RH changes over succession. Multiple controls on RH related to climate, the material being decomposed, and the decomposers involved have been identified, but how each potentially interacts with disturbance remains an open question. An emerging paradigm of carbon dynamics suggests the possibility of multiple periods of carbon sinks and sources following disturbance; a large contributing factor is the possibility that postdisturbance RH does not always follow the monotonic decline assumed in the classic theory. Without a better understanding and modeling of RH and its controlling factors, it will be difficult to estimate, forecast, understand, and manage carbon balances of regions in which disturbance frequency and severity are changing. Meeting this challenge will require (1) improved field data on processes and stores, (2) an improved understanding of the physiological and environmental controls of RH, and (3) a more formal analysis of how model structure influences the RH responses that can be predicted.
    Description: Support was provided by the U.S. Geologic Survey and the Kaye and Ward Richardson Endowment.
    Keywords: Carbon dynamics ; Decomposition ; Disturbance ; Ecosystems
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018]. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Global Ecology and Biogeography 27 (2018): 760-786, doi:10.1111/geb.12729.
    Description: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community‐led open‐source database of biodiversity time series. Our goal is to accelerate and facilitate quantitative analysis of temporal patterns of biodiversity in the Anthropocene. The database contains 8,777,413 species abundance records, from assemblages consistently sampled for a minimum of 2 years, which need not necessarily be consecutive. In addition, the database contains metadata relating to sampling methodology and contextual information about each record. BioTIME is a global database of 547,161 unique sampling locations spanning the marine, freshwater and terrestrial realms. Grain size varies across datasets from 0.0000000158 km2 (158 cm2) to 100 km2 (1,000,000,000,000 cm2). BioTIME records span from 1874 to 2016. The minimal temporal grain across all datasets in BioTIME is a year. BioTIME includes data from 44,440 species across the plant and animal kingdoms, ranging from plants, plankton and terrestrial invertebrates to small and large vertebrates.
    Description: European Research Council and EU, Grant/Award Number: AdG‐250189, PoC‐727440 and ERC‐SyG‐2013‐610028; Natural Environmental Research Council, Grant/Award Number: NE/L002531/1; National Science Foundation, Grant/Award Number: DEB‐1237733, DEB‐1456729, 9714103, 0632263, 0856516, 1432277, DEB‐9705814, BSR‐8811902, DEB 9411973, DEB 0080538, DEB 0218039, DEB 0620910, DEB 0963447, DEB‐1546686, DEB‐129764, OCE 95‐21184, OCE‐ 0099226, OCE 03‐52343, OCE‐0623874, OCE‐1031061, OCE‐1336206 and DEB‐1354563; National Science Foundation (LTER) , Grant/Award Number: DEB‐1235828, DEB‐1440297, DBI‐0620409, DEB‐9910514, DEB‐1237517, OCE‐0417412, OCE‐1026851, OCE‐1236905, OCE‐1637396, DEB 1440409, DEB‐0832652, DEB‐0936498, DEB‐0620652, DEB‐1234162 and DEB‐0823293; Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Grant/Award Number: POPH/FSE SFRH/BD/90469/2012, SFRH/BD/84030/2012, PTDC/BIA‐BIC/111184/2009; SFRH/BD/80488/2011 and PD/BD/52597/2014; Ciência sem Fronteiras/CAPES, Grant/Award Number: 1091/13‐1; Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía, Grant/Award Number: IC120019; ARC Centre of Excellence, Grant/Award Number: CE0561432; NSERC Canada; CONICYT/FONDECYT, Grant/Award Number: 1160026, ICM PO5‐002, CONICYT/FONDECYT, 11110351, 1151094, 1070808 and 1130511; RSF, Grant/Award Number: 14‐50‐00029; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Grant/Award Number: GBMF4563; Catalan Government; Marie Curie Individual Fellowship, Grant/Award Number: QLK5‐CT2002‐51518 and MERG‐CT‐2004‐022065; CNPq, Grant/Award Number: 306170/2015‐9, 475434/2010‐2, 403809/2012‐6 and 561897/2010; FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation), Grant/Award Number: 2015/10714‐6, 2015/06743‐0, 2008/10049‐9, 2013/50714‐0 and 1999/09635‐0 e 2013/50718‐5; EU CLIMOOR, Grant/Award Number: ENV4‐CT97‐0694; VULCAN, Grant/Award Number: EVK2‐CT‐2000‐00094; Spanish, Grant/Award Number: REN2000‐0278/CCI, REN2001‐003/GLO and CGL2016‐79835‐P; Catalan, Grant/Award Number: AGAUR SGR‐2014‐453 and SGR‐2017‐1005; DFG, Grant/Award Number: 120/10‐2; Polar Continental Shelf Program; CENPES – PETROBRAS; FAPERJ, Grant/Award Number: E‐26/110.114/2013; German Academic Exchange Service; sDiv; iDiv; New Zealand Department of Conservation; Wellcome Trust, Grant/Award Number: 105621/Z/14/Z; Smithsonian Atherton Seidell Fund; Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority; Research Council of Norway; Conselleria de Innovació, Hisenda i Economia; Yukon Government Herschel Island‐Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park; UK Natural Environment Research Council ShrubTundra Grant, Grant/Award Number: NE/M016323/1; IPY; Memorial University; ArcticNet. DOI: 10.13039/50110000027. Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research in the Tropics NWO, grant W84‐194. Ciências sem Fronteiras and Coordenação de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brazil), Grant/Award Number: 1091/13‐1. National Science foundation (LTER), Award Number: OCE‐9982105, OCE‐0620276, OCE‐1232779. FCT ‐ SFRH / BPD / 82259 / 2011. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/State Wildlife federal grant number T‐15. Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies (CE140100020). Australian Research Council Future Fellowship FT110100609. M.B., A.J., K.P., J.S. received financial support from internal funds of University of Lódź. NSF DEB 1353139. Catalan Government fellowships (DURSI): 1998FI‐00596, 2001BEAI200208, MECD Post‐doctoral fellowship EX2002‐0022. National Science Foundation Award OPP‐1440435. FONDECYT 1141037 and FONDAP 15150003 (IDEAL). CNPq Grant 306595‐2014‐1
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 52 (1982), S. 214-215 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Decomposition of standing dead trees that were killed by fire was examined for 10 species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The decrease in wood density as fire age increased was used to estimate decomposition rates. Quercus prinus had the fastest decay rate (11% yr-1) while Pinus virginiana had the slowest decay rate (3.6% yr-1) for standing dead wood. Decay rates were intermediate between those reported in western USA and tropics for wood.
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