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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: Crystalline silicates, by their apparent absence in the ISM, are dust grains that experienced high temperatures in the solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed either by condensation from hot nebular gases (1450 K) or by the annealing of Mg-rich amorphous silicates (approximately 1000 K) in shocks in the 5-10AU region or by radial transport into and out of the hot inner zones, e.g., T(sub d) greater than 1000K at r(sub h) less than 5AU, 10(exp -6) -10(exp -5) solar mass per year, alpha = 10(exp -4) of the early solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and produce IR spectral features in many Oort cloud comets. In May 2004, we discovered strong crystalline silicate features in the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Thermal emission modeling of comets Q4 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) demonstrate that both these comets have similar, high silicate crystalline-toamorphous ratios of 2.4 and 2.1, respectively, indicating that these icy planetesimals aggregated from similar reservoirs of material or that crystalline silicates were widely distributed within the comet-forming zone. This argues for efficient annealing mechanisms and radial mixing.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 4; LPI-Contrib-1218-Pt-4
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: The ubiquity of accretion disks around pre-main sequence and young main sequence stars having the potential to form planetary systems is now well established. However, unknown is an accurate estimate of the fraction of single stars with disks that have produced planetary systems. Theoretical models of particle aggregation show that if particles can grow from submicron to mm to cm in size, then the formation of planetesimals is possible in the time before the disk dissipates. The problem remains to understand how grains condense from nebular gases, and how relic interstellar grains survive and are modified by their transport in the disk. If grains are lofted above the disk photosphere by processes such as winds, turbulent convection, or changes in vertical structure, the evolution of dust can be investigated by observing the properties of the small (less than or = 1 micron) grains in the optically thin disk surface layer or atmosphere.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 2; LPI-Contrib-1218-Pt-2
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0794
    Keywords: Comet Hale-Bopp ; infrared ; dust ; silicates
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The dust coma of comet Hale-Bopp was observed in the thermal infrared over a wide range in solar heating (R = 4.9–0.9 AU) and over the full wavelength range from 3 μm to 160 μm. Unusual early activity produced an extensive coma containing small warm refractory grains; already at 4.9 AU, the 10 μm silicate emission feature was strong and the color temperature was 30% above the equilibrium blackbody temperature. Near perihelion the high color temperature, strong silicate feature, and high albedo indicated a smaller mean grain size than in other comets. The 8–13 μm spectra revealed a silicate emission feature similar in shape to that seen in P/Halley and several new and long period comets. Detailed spectral structure in the feature was consistent over time and with different instruments; the main peaks occur at 9.3, 10.0 and 11.2 μm. These peaks can be identified with olivine and pyroxene minerals, linking the comet dust to the anhydrous chondritic aggregate interplanetary dust particles. Spectra at 16–40 μm taken with the ISO SWS displayed pronounced emission peaks due to Mg-rich crystalline olivine, consistent with the 11.2 μm peak.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission is focused on assessing the past or present habitability of Mars, through interrogation of environment and environmental records at the Curiosity rover field site in Gale crater. The MSL team has two methods available to collect, process and deliver samples to onboard analytical laboratories, the Chemistry and Mineralogy instrument (CheMin) and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. One approach obtains samples by drilling into a rock, the other uses a scoop to collect loose regolith fines. Scooping was planned to be first method performed on Mars because materials could be readily scooped multiple times and used to remove any remaining, minute terrestrial contaminants from the sample processing system, the Collection and Handling for In-Situ Martian Rock Analysis (CHIMRA). Because of this cleaning effort, the ideal first material to be scooped would consist of fine to very fine sand, like the interior of the Serpent Dune studied by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit team in 2004 [1]. The MSL team selected a linear eolian deposit in the lee of a group of cobbles they named Rocknest (Fig. 1) as likely to be similar to Serpent Dune. Following the definitions in Chapter 13 of Bagnold [2], the deposit is termed a sand shadow. The scooping campaign occurred over approximately 6 weeks in October and November 2012. To support these activities, the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) acquired images for engineering support/assessment and scientific inquiry.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-27937 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 18-22 Mar. 2013; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The GNIRS instrument on the Gemini 8-m telescope observed comet 103P/Hartley on 2010- Dec-04UT, a month after the EPOXI Mission encounter, and detected the 3.3 and 3.4 um bands in emission. The 3.3/3.4 ratio and the broad band widths are consistent with experiments of heated (approximately 600 K) aliphatic carbon (-CH3, -CH2) thin films. For the 3.4 micron band to be in emission, the aliphatic bonds must be attached to a carrier possessing the strongly UV-absorbing C=C aromatic rings, and these rings have to be less than 50-100 carbon atoms (4-6 Angstrom) for attached -CH bonds to also generate a 3.3 micron-band in emission. Slightly larger (10) Very Small Grains (VSGs) can absorb single UV photons comparable to or exceeding their heat capacity, thermally fluctuate and release IR photon(s). The 3.3 micron and 3.4 micron bands observed by GNIRS suggest that organic macromolecules/ nano-grains with both aliphatic and aromatic bonds are fluorescing/thermally fluctuating in the coma. Aliphatic and aromatic materials have been seen in Stardust samples and the primitive carbonaceous chondrite 'Tagish Lake'. The larger the ratio of the -CH2/-CH3 components of the aliphatic 3.4 micron band, the more 'primitive' the organic material. In a Stardust organic globule, some aliphatic bonds were transformed into aromatic bonds during the low dosage of Transmission Electron Microscope imaging. Conversely, lab experiments show irradiation of ices containing small PAHs generates aliphatic organics. Photo-processing of ices also likely forms the ubiquitous aliphatic coatings that appear on the surfaces of all silicate subgrains constituting nine cometary interplanetary dust particles. The aliphatic coatings, dominated by -CH2, likely were important in sticking the aggregates together, and existed prior to incorporation of dust aggregates into comet nuclei. These comet aliphatics may be some of the sought-after precursors to the more robust and complex organics studied as Insoluble Organic Matter in carbonaceous chondrites. Aliphatic coatings on submicron grains, however, will not be observable in absorption because they are fairly transparent, nor do the aliphatic carbonaceous coatings produce the 3.4 micron emission band because the particles they are attached to are too large (too many vibration modes). We must probe the nano-sized organic carriers that undergo substantive thermal fluctuations in cometary comae and emit at 3.3 3.4 micron. Observations of the 3.3 and 3.4 micron emission features contribute to characterizing the evolution of organics prior to their incorporation into cometary nuclei as well as their rapid evolution in cometary comae, which in turn contributes to deepening our understanding of the evolution of organics on the surfaces of asteroids and outer icy bodies in our solar system. Studying organics in comets contributes to understanding the formation and evolution pathways of ISM organics through to the formation of the robust insoluble organic matter in meteorites. A'Hearn, M.F., et al. 2011, Science, 332, 1396; Bockelee-Morvan, D. et al. 1995, Icarus, 116, 18; De Gregorio, B.T., et al. 2010, GCA, 74, 4454; Dello Russo, N., et al. 2011, ApJ, 734, L8; Dischler et al. 1983, Solid State Communications, 48, 105; Flynn, G., et al. 2010a, LPSC, 41, #1079; Flynn, G., et al. 2010b, COSPAR, 38, F31-0012-10; Flynn, G., Wirick, S. 2011, LPSC, 42, #1856; Fomenkova, et al. 1994, GCA 58, 4503; Matrajt, G., et al. 2013, ApJ, 765, 145; Schutte, et al. 1993, ApJ, 415, 397; Wooden, D.H. et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS, 1557; Wooden, D.H. et al. 2013, submitted.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN8643 , Origins of Solar Systems-Gordon Research Conference; 23-28 Jun. 2013; South Hadley, MA; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was unique in that it was a dynamically new comet derived from the nearly isotropic Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. Infrared (IR) observations were executed on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) by the FORCAST instrument on 2013 October 25 UT (r(sub h)=1.18 AU, Delta=1.5AU). Photometry was obtained in FORCAST filters centered at 11.1, 19.7, and 31.5 micron. The observations compliment a large world-wide effort to observe and characterize comet ISON.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN12988 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 17-21 Mar. 2014; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: Crystalline silicates, by their apparent absence in the ISM, are dust grains that experienced high temperatures in the solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed either by condensation from hot nebular gases (1450 K) or by the annealing of Mg-rich amorphous silicates (approx. 1000 K) in shocks in the 5-10 AU region or by radial transport into and out of the hot inner zones, e.g., T(sub d) 〉 1000 K at r(sub h) 〈 5 AU, 10(exp -6) - 10(exp -5) M(sub O)/yr, alpha = 10(exp -4) of the early solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and produce IR spectral features in many Oort cloud comets. In May 2004, we discovered strong crystalline silicate features in the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Thermal emission modeling of comets Q4 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) demonstrate that both these comets have similar, high silicate crystalline-to-amorphous ratios of 2.4 and 2.1, respectively, indicating that these icy planetesimals aggregated from similar reservoirs of material or that crystalline silicates were widely distributed within the comet-forming zone. This argues for efficient annealing mechanisms and radial mixing.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk; 8-11 Nov. 2004; Lihue, HI; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: We report on observations and analysis of HIFOGS 10 microns spectrophotometry of short period comet 19P/Borrelly on 2003 October 13, 15 UT at the NASA IRTF. 19P/Borrelly is one of two short period comets, comet 4PIFaye being the other, to have a silicate feature detected. During Borrelly s perihelion passage in 1994 December, a silicate feature was present with a flux-to-continuum ratio of 0.25. Two apparitions later in 2003 October, the silicate feature is absent. Thermal emission modeling using amorphous olivine and amorphous carbon shows that a slight increase in grain size accounts for the disappearance of the silicate feature. Analysis of 19P/Borrelly suggests grain size, and not the absence of olivine minerals, may be responsible for the absence of silicate features in most short period comets. 19P/Borrelly is one of the more active short period comets. However, short period comets as a family are less active than long period comets. Short period comets probably originated in the Kuiper Belt and suffered collisions while in residence in the outer solar system. Upon evolution into orbits that take them through the inner solar system, the surfaces of short period comets are exposed to sunlight through their many perihelion passages. This is in contrast to long period comets which probably originated near Jupiter and were expelled to the Oort cloud where they have existed and been exposed to cosmic ray processing. By studying the grain properties in short period comets and comparing to long period comets, we compare the effects on the grain populations of different parent body evolution histories. Upcoming opportunities to study short and long period comets will be advertised.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: 35th American Astronomical Society Division of Planetary Sciences Annual Meeting; 2-6 Sep. 2003; Monterey, CA; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: We report on imaging observations of comets 73P-B/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 and 73P-C/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 at the IRTF with SpeX (J, K) and MRSI (10 micron narrow band filter set) on 2006 Apr 17-19 UT and 2006 Jun 18-19, and at the VLT with VISIR (1 0 micron narrow band filters, 20 micron) on 2006 Apr 17 UT. Compared to when the comet was in the midst of breaking up in mid-April, in June the tail of 73P-B is much fainter and there is a compact coma detected well separated and ahead of its tail, and fainter than the tail. The width of the tail in J, K, and 10 micron images indicates that the pieces that were shed in April must still be outgassing and releasing small particles into the tail-shaped coma; small grains have relatively short lifetimes in the coma due to radiation pressure. The trailing tail is now well separated from the faint "leader of the pack" compact coma that we suppose is a remaining piece of the nucleus. It will be interesting to see post-perihelion if this "leading compact coma" object continues to gain distance on the debris and continues to weakly outgas and shed small grains. One wonders if it expended its volatiles (available to the surface) in breaking up; a short-lived release of volatiles occurred in the Deep Impact event with comet 9P/Tempel 1. 73P-C is extended with a more elongated coma structure closer to perihelion compared to 2006 Apr 18- 19 UT. The SEDs from 2006 Apr and Jun from SpeX-MIRSI (IRTF) are compared with VISIR (VLT) SEDs from 2006 Apr. Information on the heliocentric dependence of the activity and dust release yields insights into the origin of activity and the relationship between activity and grain size distribution/mineralogy.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Europlanet 2006; 18-22 Oct. 2006; Lindau; Germany
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: Comets contain crystalline silicate grains which could only have formed at high temperatures, not generally experienced by comets. We test the hypothesis that amorphous silicates were annealed by shock waves in the solar nebula. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIII; LPI-Contrib-1109
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