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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Advances in lidar and radar technology have potential for providing new and better information on climate significant parameters of cirrus. Consequently, the NOAA Wave Propagation Lab. is commencing CLARET (Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test) to evaluate the promise of these new capabilities. Parameters under study include cloud particle size distribution, height of cloud bases, tops, and multiple layers, and cloud dynamics revealed through measurement of vertical motions. The first phase of CLARET is planned for Sept. 1989. The CO2 coherent Doppler lidar and the sensitive K sub a band radar hold promise for providing valuable information on cirrus that is beyond the grasp of current visible lidars.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1989; p 487-490
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-09-25
    Description: In many areas of the United States, as well as in other industrial areas (such as Europe), elevated and potentially harmful levels of ozone are being measured during summer. Most of this ozone is photochemically produced. The relatively long lifetime of ozone allows industrially produced ozone to be transported on a hemispheric scale. Since the trends of tropospheric ozone are very likely dependent on the source strengths and distributions of the pollutants and the chemical/ transport process involved, a predictive understanding of tropospheric ozone climatology requires a focus on the chemical and transport processes that link regional emissions to hemispheric ozone trends and distributions. Of critical importance to these studies is a satisfactory data base of tropospheric ozone distribution from which global and regional tropospheric ozone climatology can be derived, and the processes controlling tropospheric ozone can be better understood. A transportable lidar for measuring ozone concentration and flux profiles in the lower troposphere is needed. One such system is being developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth Resources Laboratory (NOAA/ERL) Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL).
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA. Langley Research Center, Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Part 1; p 185-187
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The coherent Doppler lidar, when operated from an airborne platform, offers a unique measurement capability for study of atmospheric dynamical and physical properties. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are at a disadvantage in terms of spatial resolution and coverage. Recent experience suggests airborne coherent Doppler lidar can yield unique wind measurements of--and during operation within--extreme weather phenomena. This paper presents the first airborne coherent Doppler lidar measurements of hurricane wind fields. The lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory jointly developed an airborne lidar system, the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS). The centerpiece of MACAWS is the lidar transmitter from the highly successful NOAA Windvan. Other field-tested lidar components have also been used, when feasible, to reduce costs and development time. The methodology for remotely sensing atmospheric wind fields with scanning coherent Doppler lidar was demonstrated in 1981; enhancements were made and the system was reflown in 1984. MACAWS has potentially greater scientific utility, compared to the original airborne scanning lidar system, owing to a factor of approx. 60 greater energy-per-pulse from the NOAA transmitter. MACAWS development was completed and the system was first flown in 1995. Following enhancements to improve performance, the system was re-flown in 1996 and 1998. The scientific motivation for MACAWS is three-fold: obtain fundamental measurements of subgrid scale (i.e., approx. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in hydrological, climate, and general/regional circulation models; obtain similar datasets to improve understanding and predictive capabilities for similarly-scaled processes and features; and simulate and validate the performance of prospective satellite Doppler lidars for global tropospheric wind measurement.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: Tenth Biennial Coherent Laser Radar Technology and Applications Conference; 29-32; NASA/CP-1999-209758
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The deployment of a space-based Doppler lidar would provide information that is fundamental to advancing the understanding and prediction of weather and climate. This paper reviews the concepts of wind measurement by Doppler lidar, highlights the results of some observing system simulation experiments with lidar winds, and discusses the important advances in earth system science anticipated with lidar winds. Observing system simulation experiments, conducted using two different general circulation models, have shown (1) that there is a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy over the Southern Hemisphere and tropical oceans resulting from the assimilation of simulated satellite wind data, and (2) that wind data are significantly more effective than temperature or moisture data in controlling analysis error. Because accurate wind observations are currently almost entirely unavailable for the vast majority of tropical cyclones worldwide, lidar winds have the potential to substan- tially improve tropical cyclone forecasts. Similarly, to improve water vapor flux divergence calculations, a direct measure of the ageostrophic wind is needed since the present level of uncer- tainty cannot be reduced with better temperature and moisture soundings alone.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: American Meteorological Society, Bulletin (ISSN 0003-0007); 76; 6; p. 869-888
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The signal-processing techniques for obtaining the velocity estimates and the fundamental factors that influence coherent lidar performance are considered. The similarities and distinctions between Doppler lidar and Doppler radars are discussed. The capability of coherent Doppler lidars for mapping wind fields over selected regions in the lower atmosphere and greatly enhancing the capability to visualize flow patterns in real time is discussed, and examples are given. Salient features of a concept for an earth-orbiting Doppler lidar to be launched in the late 1990s are examined.
    Keywords: LASERS AND MASERS
    Type: IEEE, Proceedings (ISSN 0018-9219); 77; 449-462
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Lidars have long been used to study various parameters of clouds. NOAA's Wave Propagation Laboratory has operated a coherent CO2 lidar for over a decade, using Doppler to study wind fields and turbulence, atmospheric absorption for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) applications, backscatter to investigate aerosol distributions, and backscatter and extinction measurements on clouds. A system under development for our laboratory promises to overcome the older system's problems of large size, frequency instability, and need for continual operator attention. We are also thoroughly evaluating the capabilities of CO2 lidar for observing clouds, including development of some new techniques. CO2 lidar provides a view of clouds different in many ways from that of lidars at other extinction measurements from clouds. This discussion argues in support of the proposition: coherent CO2 lidar can be a superior lidar system for measuring most cloud properties.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA. Langley Research Center, 16th International Laser Radar Conference, Part 2; p 501-504
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: A pulsed Doppler radar gains a tremendous advantage in studying atmospheric flows when it has the ability to scan. The Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) has been operating a scanning, 10.59 micron CO2 system for over 10 years. Recently, the WPL lidar has been a featured instrument in several investigations of mesoscale wind fields in the lowest 3-4 km of the atmosphere. These include four experiments: a study of the initiation and growth of the sea breeze off the coast of California, a study of the snake column of a prescribed forest fire, a study of the nighttime flow over the complex terrain near Rocky Flats, Colorado as it affects the dispersion of atmospheric contaminants, and a study of the wind flow in the Grand Canyon. We have analyzed much data from these experiments, and we have found that the lidar provides new insight into the structure of these flows. Many of these studies took place in rugged or mountainous terrain, thus using one of the major benefits of the lidar: the narrow, 90 microrad beam of the lidar makes it an ideal instrument for studying flow close to topography.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Langley Research Center, 16th International Laser Radar Conference, Part 2; p 385-388
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory have developed and flown a scanning, 1 Joule per pulse, CO2 coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping a three-dimensional volume of atmospheric winds and aerosol backscatter in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Applications include the study of severe and non-severe atmospheric flows, intercomparisons with other sensors, and the simulation of prospective satellite Doppler lidar wind profilers. Examples of wind measurements are given for the marine boundary layer and near the coastline of the western United States.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: Optics Express
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: In 1992 the atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory began a joint collaboration to develop an airborne high-energy Doppler laser radar (lidar) system for atmospheric research and satellite validation and simulation studies. The result is the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS, which has the capability to remotely sense the distribution of wind and absolute aerosol backscatter in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. A factor critical to the programmatic feasibility and technical success of this collaboration has been the utilization of existing components and expertise which were developed for previous atmospheric research by the respective institutions. The motivation for the MACAWS program Is three-fold: to obtain fundamental measurements of sub-synoptic scale processes and features which may be used as a basis to improve sub-grid scale parameterizations in large-scale models; to obtain similar datasets in order to improve the understanding and predictive capabilities on the mesoscale; and to validate (simulate) the performance of existing (planned) satellite-borne sensors. Examples of the latter include participation in the validation of the NASA Scatterometer and the assessment of prospective satellite Doppler lidar for global tropospheric wind measurement. Initial flight tests were made in September 1995; subsequent flights were made in June 1996 following improvements. This paper describes the MACAWS instrument, principles of operation, examples of measurements over the eastern Pacific Ocean and western United States, and future applications.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: Radiometric calibration of an airborne CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar has been accomplished using surface retro-reflection signals from the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA. Two circular passes were made at altitudes of 6.26 and 9.26 km. The computed calibration factors for both altitudes are in excellent agreement with the value derived from standard ground-based measurements involving a fixed sandpaper target of known reflectance. This finding corroborates a previous study that successfully calibrated an airborne continuous-wave Doppler lidar using a variety of natural Earth surfaces. The present results indicate that relatively uniform Earth-surface targets can be used for in-flight calibration of pulsed airborne, and, in principal, spaceborne lidars.
    Keywords: Communications and Radar
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