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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Phytochemistry 29 (1990), S. 3749-3754 
    ISSN: 0031-9422
    Keywords: Brachythecium rutabulum, B. salebrosum ; Eurhynchium striatum ; Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus, R. triquetrus ; Scleropodium purum ; arachidonic acid ; eicosapentaenoic acid. ; lipids ; mosses
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A Get Away Special (GAS) experiment payload to investigate microgravity effects on solidification phenomena of selected experimental samples has been designed for flight. It is intended that the first flight of the assembly will (1) study the p-n junction characteristics for advancing semiconductor device applications, (2) study the effects of gravity-driven convection on the growth of HgCd crystals, (3) compare the textures of the sample which crystallizes in microgravity with those found in chondrite meteorites, and (4) modify glass optical characteristics through divalent oxygen exchange. The space flight experiment consists of many small furnaces. While the experiment payload is in the low gravity environment of orbital flight, the payload controller will sequentially activate the furnaces to heat samples to their melt state and then allow cooling to resolidification in a controlled fashion. The materials processed in the microgravity environment of space will be compared to the same materials processed on earth in a one-gravity environment. This paper discusses the design of all subassemblies (furnance, electronics, and power systems) in the experiment. A complete description of the experimental materials is also presented.
    Keywords: MATERIALS PROCESSING
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center, The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium; p 95-101
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The integrity and outgassing certification of reflown hardware, maintained between servicing missions while accommodating configuration changes to the hardware, are discussed. The Hubble Space Telescope requires a periodically servicing mission to maintain its scientific capabilities. Servicing carriers are reflown for each servicing mission. The mission contamination control program is unique as it must maintain the current operational capability of the telescope while allowing manned servicing.
    Keywords: Optics
    Type: ; 135-142
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The use of molecular adsorbers, in order to aid in the reduction of the spacecraft contamination levels, is discussed. Molecular adsorbers are characterized by an extremely large surface area, molecularly-porous substructure, and processing charged sites capable of retaining molecular contaminant species. Molecular adsorbers were applied on two Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions, as well as on the tropical rainfall measuring mission. The use of molecular adsorbers carries the potential for low cost, easy fabrication and integration of reliable means for reducing the contamination level around spacecraft.
    Keywords: Nonmetallic Materials
    Type: ; 435-443
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Second Servicing Mission (SM2), degradation of unsupported Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), used as the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets, was evident as large cracks on the telescope light shield. A sample of the degraded outer layer was retrieved during the mission and returned to Earth for ground testing and evaluation. The results of the Teflon(R) FEP sample evaluation and additional testing of pristine Teflon(R) FEP led the investigative team to theorize that the HST damage was caused by thermal cycling with deep-layer damage from electron and proton radiation which allowed the propagation of cracks along stress concentrations, and that the damage increased with the combined total dose of electrons, protons, UV and x-rays along with thermal cycling. This paper discusses the testing and evaluation of the Teflon(R) FEP.
    Keywords: Nonmetallic Materials
    Type: 20th Space Simulation Conference: The Changing Testing Paradigm; 173-186; NASA/CR-1998-208598-Preprint
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Maintaining contamination certification of multi-mission flight hardware is an innovative approach to controlling mission costs. Methods for assessing ground induced degradation between missions have been employed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Project for the multi-mission (servicing) hardware. By maintaining the cleanliness of the hardware between missions, and by controlling the materials added to the hardware during modification and refurbishment both project funding for contamination recertification and schedule have been significantly reduced. These methods will be discussed and HST hardware data will be presented.
    Keywords: Quality Assurance and Reliability
    Type: 20th Space Simulation Conference: The Changing Testing Paradigm; 1-13; NASA/CR-1998-208598-Preprint
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The mechanical and optical properties of the thermal control materials on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have degraded over the nearly seven years the telescope has been in orbit. Astronaut observations and photographs from the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. Also, the absorptance of the bonded metallized Teflon FEP radiator surfaces of the telescope has increased over time. A Failure Review Board was established to determine the damage mechanism and to identify a replacement material. Samples of the top layer of the MLI and radiator material were retrieved during SM2, and a thorough investigation into the degradation followed in order to determine the primary cause of the damage. Mapping of the cracks on HST and the ground testing showed that thermal cycling with deep-layer damage from electron and proton radiation are necessary to cause the observed embrittlement. Further, strong evidence was found indicating that chain scission (reduced molecular weight) is the dominant form of damage to the metallized Teflon FEP. Given the damage to the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI) that was apparent during the second servicing mission (SM2), the decision was made to replace the outer layer during subsequent servicing missions. The replacement material had to meet the stringent thermal requirements of the spacecraft and maintain structural integrity for at least ten years. Ten candidate materials were exposed to simulated orbital environments and a replacement material was selected. This presentation will summarize the FRB results, in particular, the analysis of the retrieved specimens, the results of the simulated environmental exposures, and the selection of the replacement material. The NASA Space Environments and Effects community needs to hear these results because they reveal that Teflon (FEP) films should not be used in LEO as routinely as they are today.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: 1998 SEE Flight Experiments; Jun 23, 1998 - Jun 25, 1998; Greenbelt, MD; United States
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Composite materials, used on many instruments, are a potential contamination source for sensitive sensors, especially for sensors or detectors cooled below -80 C. It is a well known fact that composite materials absorb water during fabrication, integration, test, and launch activities and desorb this water under vacuum conditions. Water absorption can be divided into two types: shallow water and deep water. Shallow water is generally about 500 A thick on a clean material surface and is easily desorbed under vacuum conditions. Deep water is a function of the material and is absorbed into the bulk of the material. Deep water can outgas for weeks, months, or years, depending on the vent path, the amount of absorbed water, and the temperature of the material. Several operational strategies have been successfully employed on the Wide Field Planetary Camera. The operational strategies include ultradry gaseous nitrogen purge, dew point of less than -80 C, and vacuum bake-out with verification of outgassing rates. The nitrogen purge is instituted during the fabrication phase and is continued through launch activities. Great care is taken to avoid extended periods of time that the material is exposed to the ambient environment (50 percent relative humidity). On-orbit operational strategies include heat-up and cool-down scenarios which allow the deep water to be sufficiently outgassed before cooling the sensors or detectors.
    Keywords: COMPOSITE MATERIALS
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center, The Seventeenth Space Simulation Conference. Terrestrial Test for Space Success; p 251
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-11
    Description: Over the past two decades, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Contamination Control Program has evolved from a ground-based integration program to a space-based science-sustaining program. On-orbit, the telescope s primary contamination requirement was maintaining a low contamination flux in the telescope s optical path. In addition, to maintain the scientific capability of the telescope, the contamination requirements and specific contamination controls from the second- and third-generation Scientific Instruments and Orbital Replacement Units were captured within the HST Contamination Control Program. Contamination controls were developed for on-orbit operations and four Servicing Missions (Orbiter, Astronauts, and mission). Long-term on-orbit scientific data has shown that these contamination controls successfully protected the HST from contamination.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Format: application/pdf
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