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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-0661
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: 2 . Our results indicate that four purges at 0.05 MPa, followed by filling with N2, resulted in negligible O2 levels in this transporter.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-12-15
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Nature Communications 7 (2016): 13801, doi:10.1038/ncomms13801.
    Description: The reactive oxygen species superoxide (O2·−) is both beneficial and detrimental to life. Within corals, superoxide may contribute to pathogen resistance but also bleaching, the loss of essential algal symbionts. Yet, the role of superoxide in coral health and physiology is not completely understood owing to a lack of direct in situ observations. By conducting field measurements of superoxide produced by corals during a bleaching event, we show substantial species-specific variation in external superoxide levels, which reflect the balance of production and degradation processes. Extracellular superoxide concentrations are independent of light, algal symbiont abundance and bleaching status, but depend on coral species and bacterial community composition. Furthermore, coral-derived superoxide concentrations ranged from levels below bulk seawater up to ∼120 nM, some of the highest superoxide concentrations observed in marine systems. Overall, these results unveil the ability of corals and/or their microbiomes to regulate superoxide in their immediate surroundings, which suggests species-specific roles of superoxide in coral health and physiology.
    Description: This work was supported by a Postdoctoral Fellowship from the Ford Foundation (J.M.D.), the National Science Foundation under grants OCE 1225801 (J.M.D.) and OCE 1233612 (A.A.), the Ocean and Climate Change Institute of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (C.M.H.), the Sidney Stern Memorial Trust (C.M.H. and A.A.) and an anonymous donor.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2013. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Society for Applied Microbiology for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Environmental Microbiology Reports 6 (2014): 226-238, doi:10.1111/1758-2229.12116.
    Description: Microbe-mediated soil uptake is the largest and most uncertain variable in the budget of atmospheric hydrogen (H2). The diversity and ecophysiological role of soil microorganisms that can consume low atmospheric abundances of H2 with high-affinity [NiFe]-hydrogenases is unknown. We expanded the library of atmospheric H2-consuming strains to include four soil Harvard Forest Isolate (HFI) Streptomyces spp., Streptomyces cattleya, and Rhodococcus equi by assaying for high-affinity hydrogenase (hhyL) genes and quantifying H2 uptake rates. We find that aerial structures (hyphae and spores) are important for Streptomyces H2 consumption; uptake was not observed in Streptomyces griseoflavus Tu4000 (deficient in aerial structures) and was reduced by physical disruption of Streptomyces sp. HFI8 aerial structures. H2 consumption depended on the life cycle stage in developmentally distinct actinobacteria: Streptomyces sp. HFI8 (sporulating) and R. equi (non-sporulating, non-filamentous). Strain HFI8 took up H2 only after forming aerial hyphae and sporulating, while R. equi only consumed H2 in the late exponential and stationary phase. These observations suggest that conditions favoring H2 uptake by actinobacteria are associated with energy and nutrient limitation. Thus, H2 may be an important energy source for soil microorganisms inhabiting systems in which nutrients are frequently limited.
    Description: L.K.M. was supported by from the following funding sources: NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, multiple grants from NASA to MIT for the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), MIT Center for Global Change Science, MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, MIT Martin Family Society of Fellows for Sustainability, MIT Ally of Nature Research Fund, MIT William Otis Crosby Lectureship, and MIT Warren Klein Fund. D. R. was funded through MIT Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) with support from the Lord Foundation and Jordan J. Baruch Fund (1947) and was supported by the Harvard Forest REU Program.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Frontiers in Microbiology 6 (2015): 596, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00596.
    Description: Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal that poses significant environmental and human health risks. Soils and sediments, where Hg can exist as the Hg sulfide mineral metacinnabar (β-HgS), represent major Hg reservoirs in aquatic environments. Metacinnabar has historically been considered a sink for Hg in all but severely acidic environments, and thus disregarded as a potential source of Hg back to aqueous or gaseous pools. Here, we conducted a combination of field and laboratory incubations to identify the potential for metacinnabar as a source of dissolved Hg within near neutral pH environments and the underpinning (a)biotic mechanisms at play. We show that the abundant and widespread sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thiobacillus extensively colonized metacinnabar chips incubated within aerobic, near neutral pH creek sediments. Laboratory incubations of axenic Thiobacillus thioparus cultures led to the release of metacinnabar-hosted Hg(II) and subsequent volatilization to Hg(0). This dissolution and volatilization was greatly enhanced in the presence of thiosulfate, which served a dual role by enhancing HgS dissolution through Hg complexation and providing an additional metabolic substrate for Thiobacillus. These findings reveal a new coupled abiotic-biotic pathway for the transformation of metacinnabar-bound Hg(II) to Hg(0), while expanding the sulfide substrates available for neutrophilic chemosynthetic bacteria to Hg-laden sulfides. They also point to mineral-hosted Hg as an underappreciated source of gaseous elemental Hg to the environment.
    Description: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-0644491 awarded to AV.
    Keywords: Mercury ; Metacinnabar ; Sulfur chemosynthesis ; Thiobacillus ; Thiosulfate ; Mercury sulfide dissolution ; Sulfur metabolism ; Sulfur oxidation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Frontiers in Chemistry 4 (2016): 5, doi:10.3389/fchem.2016.00005.
    Description: Biological production and decay of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O−2) likely have significant effects on the cycling of trace metals and carbon in marine systems. In this study, extracellular production rates of H2O2 and O−2 were determined for five species of marine diatoms in the presence and absence of light. Production of both ROS was measured in parallel by suspending cells on filters and measuring the ROS downstream using chemiluminescence probes. In addition, the ability of these organisms to break down O−2 and H2O2 was examined by measuring recovery of O−2 and H2O2 added to the influent medium. O−2 production rates ranged from undetectable to 7.3 × 10−16 mol cell−1 h−1, while H2O2 production rates ranged from undetectable to 3.4 × 10−16 mol cell−1 h−1. Results suggest that extracellular ROS production occurs through a variety of pathways even amongst organisms of the same genus. Thalassiosira spp. produced more O−2 in light than dark, even when the organisms were killed, indicating that O−2 is produced via a passive photochemical process on the cell surface. The ratio of H2O2 to O−2 production rates was consistent with production of H2O2 solely through dismutation of O−2 for T. oceanica, while T. pseudonana made much more H2O2 than O−2. T. weissflogii only produced H2O2 when stressed or killed. P. tricornutum cells did not make cell-associated ROS, but did secrete H2O2-producing substances into the growth medium. In all organisms, recovery rates for killed cultures (94–100% H2O2; 10–80% O−2) were consistently higher than those for live cultures (65–95% H2O2; 10–50% O−2). While recovery rates for killed cultures in H2O2 indicate that nearly all H2O2 was degraded by active cell processes, O−2 decay appeared to occur via a combination of active and passive processes. Overall, this study shows that the rates and pathways for ROS production and decay vary greatly among diatom species, even between those that are closely related, and as a function of light conditions.
    Description: This research was supported by NSF grant OCE-1131734/1246174 to BV and CH.
    Keywords: Reactive oxygen species ; Superoxide ; Hydrogen peroxide ; Diatoms ; Culture
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: Author Posting. © Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Limnology and Oceanography 61 (2016): 1188–1200, doi:10.1002/lno.10266.
    Description: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key players in the health and biogeochemistry of the ocean and its inhabitants. The vital contribution of microorganisms to marine ROS levels, particularly superoxide, has only recently come to light, and thus the specific biological sources and pathways involved in ROS production are largely unknown. To better understand the biogenic controls on ROS levels in tropical oligotrophic systems, we determined rates of superoxide production under various conditions by natural populations of the nitrogen-fixing diazotroph Trichodesmium obtained from various surface waters in the Sargasso Sea. Trichodesmium colonies collected from eight different stations all produced extracellular superoxide at high rates in both the dark and light. Colony density and light had a variable impact on extracellular superoxide production depending on the morphology of the Trichodesmium colonies. Raft morphotypes showed a rapid increase in superoxide production in response to even low levels of light, which was not observed for puff colonies. In contrast, superoxide production rates per colony decreased with increasing colony density for puff morphotypes but not for rafts. These findings point to Trichodesmium as a likely key source of ROS to the surface oligotrophic ocean. The physiological and/or ecological factors underpinning morphology-dependent controls on superoxide production need to be unveiled to better understand and predict superoxide production by Trichodesmium and ROS dynamics within marine systems.
    Description: Major support for this work was provided by NSF OCE- 1246174 to CMH, NSF OCE-1332912 to STD and NSF OCE-13329898 to BASVM.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2018. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here under a nonexclusive, irrevocable, paid-up, worldwide license granted to WHOI. It is made available for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 232 (2018): 244-264, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2018.04.030.
    Description: The seasonal depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Southern Hemisphere allows abnormally high doses of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to reach surface waters of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) in the austral spring, creating a natural laboratory for the study of lipid photooxidation in the shallow mixed layer of the marginal ice zone. The photooxidation of lipids under such conditions has been identified as a significant source of stress to microorganisms, and short-chain fatty acids altered by photochemical processes have been found in both marine aerosols and sinking marine particle material. However, the biogeochemical impact of lipid photooxidation has not been quantitatively compared at ecosystem scale to the many other biological and abiotic processes that can transform particulate organic matter in the surface ocean. We combined results from field experiments with diverse environmental data, including high-resolution, accurate-mass HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of lipid extracts and in situ measurements of ultraviolet irradiance, to address several unresolved questions about lipid photooxidation in the marine environment. In our experiments, we used liposomes — nonliving, cell-like aggregations of lipids — to examine the photolability of various moieties of the intact polar diacylglycerol (IP-DAG) phosphatidylcholine (PC), a structural component of membranes in a broad range of microorganisms. We observed significant rates of photooxidation only when the molecule contained the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). As the DHA-containing lipid was oxidized, we observed the steady ingrowth of a diversity of oxylipins and oxidized IP-DAG; our results suggest both the intact IPDAG the degradation products were amenable to heterotrophic assimilation. To complement our experiments, we used an enhanced version of a new lipidomics discovery software package to identify the lipids in water column samples and in several diatom isolates. The galactolipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) and the phospholipids PC and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) accounted for the majority of IP-DAG in the water column particulate (≥ 0.2 μm) size fraction; between 3.4 and 5.3 % of the IP-DAG contained fatty acids that were both highly polyunsaturated (i.e., each containing ≥ 5 double bonds). Using a broadband apparent quantum yield (AQY) that accounted for direct and Type I (i.e., radical-mediated) photooxidation of PUFA-containing IP-DAG, we estimated that 0.7 ± 0.2 μmol IP-DAG m-2 d-1 (0.5 ± 0.1 mg C m-2 d-1) were oxidized by photochemical processes in the mixed layer. This rate represented 4.4 % (range, 3-21 %) of the mean bacterial production rate measured in the same waters immediately following the retreat of the sea ice. Because our liposome experiments were not designed to account for oxidation by Type II photosensitized processes that often dominate in marine phytodetritus, our rate estimates may represent a sizeable underestimate of the true rate of lipid photooxidation in the water column. While production of such diverse oxidized lipids and oxylipins has been previously observed in terrestrial plants and mammals in response to biological stressors such as disease, we show here that a similar suite of molecules can be produced via an abiotic process in the environment and that the effect can be commensurate in magnitude with other ecosystem-scale biogeochemical processes.
    Description: J.R.C. acknowledges support from a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) STAR Graduate Fellowship (Fellowship Assistance agreement FP-91744301-0). This work was also supported by U.S. National Science Foundation awards OCE-1059884 and PLR-1543328 to B.A.S.V.M., NSF award PLR- 1341479 to A. M., the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through grant GBMF3301 to B.A.S.V.M., and a WHOI Ocean Ventures Fund award to J.R.C.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: © The Author(s), 2013. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Frontiers in Microbiology 4 (2013): 262, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00262.
    Description: Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive sorbents and oxidants within the environment, where they play a central role in the cycling of nutrients, metals, and carbon. Recent discoveries have identified superoxide (O−2) both of biogenic and abiogenic origin as an effective oxidant of Mn(II) leading to the formation of Mn oxides. Here we examined the conditions under which abiotically produced superoxide led to oxidative precipitation of Mn and the solid-phases produced. Oxidized Mn, as both aqueous Mn(III) and Mn(III/IV) oxides, was only observed in the presence of active catalase, indicating that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a product of the reaction of O−2 with Mn(II), inhibits the oxidation process presumably through the reduction of Mn(III). Citrate and pyrophosphate increased the yield of oxidized Mn but decreased the amount of Mn oxide produced via formation of Mn(III)-ligand complexes. While complexing ligands played a role in stabilizing Mn(III), they did not eliminate the inhibition of net Mn(III) formation by H2O2. The Mn oxides precipitated were highly disordered colloidal hexagonal birnessite, similar to those produced by biotically generated superoxide. Yet, in contrast to the large particulate Mn oxides formed by biogenic superoxide, abiotic Mn oxides did not ripen to larger, more crystalline phases. This suggests that the deposition of crystalline Mn oxides within the environment requires a biological, or at least organic, influence. This work provides the first direct evidence that, under conditions relevant to natural waters, oxidation of Mn(II) by superoxide can occur and lead to formation of Mn oxides. For organisms that oxidize Mn(II) by producing superoxide, these findings may also point to other microbially mediated processes, in particular enzymatic hydrogen peroxide degradation and/or production of organic ligand metabolites, that allow for Mn oxide formation.
    Description: This project was supported by the National Science Foundation, grants EAR-1245919/1025077 (awarded to Colleen M. Hansel and Bettina M. Voelker), and by the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University (through a fellowship to Bettina M. Voelker).
    Keywords: Manganese oxidation ; Manganese oxides ; Superoxide ; Reactive oxygen species ; Mn(III) complexes ; Organic ligands
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2012. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Frontiers in Microbiology 3 (2012): 404, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00404.
    Description: Iron (Fe) oxides exist in a spectrum of structures in the environment, with ferrihydrite widely considered the most bioavailable phase. Yet, ferrihydrite is unstable and rapidly transforms to more crystalline Fe(III) oxides (e.g., goethite, hematite), which are poorly reduced by model dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms. This begs the question, what processes and microbial groups are responsible for reduction of crystalline Fe(III) oxides within sedimentary environments? Further, how do changes in Fe mineralogy shape oxide-hosted microbial populations? To address these questions, we conducted a large-scale cultivation effort using various Fe(III) oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite) and carbon substrates (glucose, lactate, acetate) along a dilution gradient to enrich for microbial populations capable of reducing Fe oxides spanning a wide range of crystallinities and reduction potentials. While carbon source was the most important variable shaping community composition within Fe(III)-reducing enrichments, both Fe oxide type and sediment dilution also had a substantial influence. For instance, with acetate as the carbon source, only ferrihydrite enrichments displayed a significant amount of Fe(III) reduction and the well-known dissimilatory metal reducer Geobacter sp. was the dominant organism enriched. In contrast, when glucose and lactate were provided, all three Fe oxides were reduced and reduction coincided with the presence of fermentative (e.g., Enterobacter spp.) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., Desulfovibrio spp.). Thus, changes in Fe oxide structure and resource availability may shift Fe(III)-reducing communities between dominantly metal-respiring to fermenting and/or sulfate-reducing organisms which are capable of reducing more recalcitrant Fe phases. These findings highlight the need for further targeted investigations into the composition and activity of speciation-directed metal-reducing populations within natural environments.
    Description: This work was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant no. DGE-0946799 and DGE-1144152 awarded to Christopher J. Lentini.
    Keywords: Fe ; Iron oxides ; Iron reduction ; Sulfate reduction ; Cultivation ; Niche differentiation
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Society for Microbiology, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Society for Microbiology for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81 (2015): 2189-2198, doi:10.1128/AEM.03643-14.
    Description: Water discharging from abandoned coal mines can contain extremely high manganese levels. Removing this metal is an ongoing challenge. Passive Mn(II) removal beds (MRBs) contain microorganisms that oxidize soluble Mn(II) to insoluble Mn(III/IV) minerals, but system performance is unpredictable. Using amplicon pyrosequencing, we profiled the bacterial, fungal, algal and archaeal communities in four variably-performing MRBs in Pennsylvania to determine whether they differed among MRBs and from surrounding soil, and to establish the relative abundance of known Mn(II)-oxidizers. Archaea were not detected; PCRs with archaeal primers returned only non-target bacterial sequences. Fungal taxonomic profiles differed starkly between sites that remove the majority of influent Mn and those that do not, with the former dominated by Ascomycota (mostly Dothideomycetes) and the latter by Basidiomycota (almost entirely Agaricomycetes). Taxonomic profiles for the other groups did not differ significantly between MRBs, but OTU-based analyses showed significant clustering by MRB with all four groups (p〈0.05). Soil samples clustered separately from MRBs in all groups except fungi, whose soil samples clustered loosely with their respective MRB. Known Mn(II) oxidizers accounted for a minor proportion of bacterial sequences (up to 0.20%) but a greater proportion of fungal sequences (up to 14.78%). MRB communities are more diverse than previously thought, and more organisms may be capable of Mn(II) oxidation than are currently known.
    Description: This project was funded by Smithsonian Scholarly Studies and Next-Generation Sequencing grants to C.M.S., by a Smithsonian Postdoctoral Fellowship to D.L.C., and by the National Science Foundation, grant numbers EAR-1249489 (awarded to C.M.H.) and CBET-1336496 (awarded to C.M.H. and C.M.S.).
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