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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: An expression is presented which can be used to correlate and predict, in an empirical fashion, polymer self-diffusion coefficients in solution over a wide range of concentrations and molecular weights, and whose parameters can be established with a minimal amount of data. Predictions thus made have been found to agree well with the limited amount of available experimental data over the entire concentration-molecular weight spectrum studied to date. This is in marked contrast to other available expressions, whose validity is confined to a narrow range of concentrations and/or molecular weights.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 35-40 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: When a gas under pressure is released, the momentum imparted to it causes the gas to mix with the surrounding air. A series of tests was carried out, and a model was used to determine the dynamics of the gas and air mixing for releases of a very short time duration. The amount of mixing that occurs when a pressurized fluid is released was determined by filling a container with varying mixtures of fumed silica and nitrogen, by bursting the container's rupture disks at fixed pressures, and by measuring the cloud velocity, location, and size at successive time intervals. A two-stage model was developed to predict the location, size, and fluid concentration (i.e., degree of dilution) of the cloud resulting from the release of a two-phase fluid composed of a non-flashing or non-evaporating dense phase. The dimensionless form of the model (ρ0u0t/ρ0r0) was found to correlate the cloud properties over initial pressures ranging from 3.1 to 70.7 barg (46 to 1025 psig), and gas quality ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 (gas mass fraction). Both the model and the data showed that the initial fluid concentration was reduced by factor of 300 to 1000 as a result of the momentum imparted mixing. This dilution is in addition to that resulting from atmospheric dispersion. Combining the predicted dilution effect from the instantaneous release with atmospheric dispersion to predict both near field and far-field concentration is an important application of this two stage model.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 86-97 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Regulatory issues related to material safety have made the accurate measurement and/or prediction of flash points essential. The flash point is one of the major physical properties used to determine the fire and explosion hazards of a liquid. Flash points are used by virtually all governmental entities worldwide to define “flammable” and “combustible” materials for shipping and safety regulations.A model is described here for the calculation of closed cup flash points for multicomponent, single liquid phase, mixtures. The model is based upon rigorous vapor/liquid equilibrium calculations supplemented with information about the lower flammable limits (LFL's) and heats of combustion (ΔHc's) for the mixture's constituent components. The closed cup flash points predicted with this model are typically within ± 5°C of the experimentally reported values. Such a model is useful as a means of verifying experimental data and as a tool for screening product formulations prior to experimental flash point determination. The model should considerably enhance the safety evaluation portion of the product development cycle, thus leading to shortened product time-to-market cycles. While flash points calculated with this model are in excellent agreement with experiment, experimental determination is still encouraged for critìcal safety applications.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Polymer bulletin 17 (1987), S. 279-284 
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary The effect of intramolecular interference on the wave vector dependence of the average tracer diffusion coefficient in a dynamic light scattering experiment from an optically matched ternary system in which the tracer polymer reptates is examined using a Schulz molecular weight distribution and the Debye interference function for random coils. The average tracer diffusion coefficient in a system in which the tracer is polydisperse is shown to vary continually with q. This variation can be quite substantial for moderate polydispersities even in the regime q¯Rg (n)〈1. It is shown that a two parameter linear fit of 〈Γ〉 versus q2 data will have a negative intercept and that the apparent q power law dependence of the average decay rate will be greater than 2.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary In this paper, we describe and use a relatively new technique — dynamic light scattering from refractive index-matched ternary solutions-to study a quantity very closely related to the self-diffusion coefficient in binary systems. We refer to this quantity as the tracer diffusion coefficient. This tracer diffusion coefficient is expected to behave in much the same way as the self-diffusion coefficient, in terms of its concentration and molecular weight dependencies. In this study, we use two compatible polymers, polystyrene and poly(vinyl methyl ether), and a solvent, o-fluorotoluene, chosen specifically because its refractive index matches that of the poly(vinyl methyl ether). The technique is advantageous in that it allows the experimenter to vary independently the molecular weight of both the probe and “invisible” matrix polymers, their individual molecular topologies, and the overall polymer concentration with relative ease. No special chemical tagging is required, although it must be borne in mind that we are not measuring self-diffusion but the diffusion of a dissimilar tracer. Our experiments probe the diffusion of linear polystyrenes in matrices composed of linear poly(vinyl methyl ether)/o-fluorotoluene. Our results show a crossover from non-free draining (Zimm) to free draining (Rouse) hydrodynamic behavior of polystyrene as the concentration of the invisible poly(vinyl methyl ether) making up the matrix is increased.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: Historically, the banking multiplier has been in a range of 4 to 100, with 25% to 1% reserve ratios at most layers of the banking system encompassing the majority of its range in recent centuries. Here it is shown that multipliers over 1 000 can occur from a new mechanism in banking. This new multiplier uses a default insurance note to insure an outstanding loan in order to return the value of the insured amount into capital. The economic impact of this invention is calculably greater than the original invention of reserve banking. The consequence of this lending invention is to render the existing money multiplier equations of reserve banking obsolete where it occurs. The equations describing this new multiplier do not converge. Each set of parameters for reserve percentage, nesting depth, etc. creates a unique logarithmic curve rather than approaching a limit. Thus it is necessary to show the behavior of this new equation by numerical methods. Understanding this new multiplier and associated issues is necessary for economic analyses of the Global Financial Crisis.
    Keywords: E17 ; E20 ; E51 ; H56 ; H63 ; ddc:330 ; GFC ; global financial crisis ; CDS ; credit default swaps ; AIG ; money multiplier ; banking multiplier ; synthetic capital ; loan insurance ; Geldschöpfung ; Bankenliquidität ; Basel II ; Credit Default Swap
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 9
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Use of a promise to pay by a bank to insure an outstanding loan in order to return the value of the insured amount into capital for use in writing a new loan is an invention in banking with calculably greater potential economic impact than the original invention of reserve banking. The consequence of this lending invention is to render the existing money multiplier equations of reserve banking obsolete whenever it is used. The equations describing this multiplier do not converge. Each set of parameters for reserve percentage, nesting depth, etc. creates a unique logarithmic curve rather than approaching a limit. Thus it is necessary to show behavior of this new equation by numerical methods. It is shown that remarkable multipliers occur and early nesting iterations can raise the multiplier into the thousands. This money creation innovation has the demonstrated capacity to impact nations. Understanding this new multiplier is necessary for economic analyses of the GFC.
    Keywords: E20 ; E51 ; E17 ; H56 ; H63 ; ddc:330 ; GFC ; CDS ; AIG ; money multiplier ; banking multiplier
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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