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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Compositional mapping of Mars at the 100-metre scale with the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has revealed a wide diversity of igneous materials. Volcanic evolution produced compositions from low-silica basalts to high-silica dacite in the Syrtis Major caldera. The existence ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) on Spirit has studied the mineralogy and thermophysical properties at Gusev crater. Undisturbed soil spectra show evidence for minor carbonates and bound water. Rocks are olivinerich basalts with varying degrees of dust and other coatings. Dark-toned soils observed on disturbed surfaces may be derived from rocks and have derived mineralogy (+/-5 to 10%) of 45% pyroxene (20% Ca-rich pyroxene and 25% pigeonite), 40% sodic to intermediate plagioclase, and 15% olivine (forsterite 45% +/-5 to 10). Two spectrally distinct coatings are observed on rocks, a possible indicator of the interaction of water, rock, and airfall dust. Diurnal temperature data indicate particle sizes from 40 to 80 microm in hollows to approximately 0.5 to 3 mm in soils.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Science (ISSN 0036-8075); Volume 305; 5685; 837-42
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Physical properties of terrains encountered by the Curiosity rover during the rst 360 sols of operations have been inferred from analysis of the scour zones produced by Sky Crane Landing System engine plumes, wheel touch down dynamics, pits produced by Chemical Camera (ChemCam) laser shots, rover wheel traverses over rocks, the extent of sinkage into soils, and the magnitude and sign of rover-based slippage during drives. Results have been integrated with morphologic, mineralogic, and thermophysical properties derived from orbital data, and Curiosity-based measurements, to understand the nature and origin of physical properties of traversed terrains. The hummocky plains (HP) landing site and traverse locations consist ofmoderately to well-consolidated bedrock of alluvial origin variably covered by slightly cohesive, hard-packedbasaltic sand and dust, with both embedded and surface-strewn rock clasts. Rock clasts have been addedthrough local bedrock weathering and impact ejecta emplacement and form a pavement-like surface in whichonly small clasts (5 to 10 cm wide) have been pressed into the soil during wheel passages. The beddedfractured (BF) unit, site of Curiositys rst drilling activity, exposes several alluvial-lacustrine bedrock unitswith little to no soil cover and varying degrees of lithication. Small wheel sinkage values (1 cm) for both HPand BF surfaces demonstrate that compaction resistance countering driven-wheel thrust has been minimaland that rover slippage while traversing across horizontal surfaces or going uphill, and skid going downhill,have been dominated by terrain tilts and wheel-surface material shear modulus values.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN22524 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets (ISSN 2169-9097) (e-ISSN 2169-9100); 119; 6; 1322-1344
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission successfully launched on September 8th, 2016. During its rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu beginning in 2018, OSIRIS-REx will characterize the asteroid's physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties in an effort to globally map the properties of Bennu, a primitive carbonaceous asteroid, and choose a sampling location [e.g. 1]. In preparation for these observations, we spectrally characterized a suite of analog samples across visible, near- and thermal-infrared wavelengths and used these in initial tests of phase detection and abundance determination software algorithms. Here we present the thermal infrared laboratory measurements of the analog sample suite measured under asteroidlike conditions, which are relevant to the interpretation of spectroscopic observations by the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) [2, 3]. This suite of laboratory measurements of asteroid analogs under asteroid-like conditions is the first of their kind.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-38849 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 20-24 Mar. 2017; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission is focused on assessing the past or present habitability of Mars, through interrogation of environment and environmental records at the Curiosity rover field site in Gale crater. The MSL team has two methods available to collect, process and deliver samples to onboard analytical laboratories, the Chemistry and Mineralogy instrument (CheMin) and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. One approach obtains samples by drilling into a rock, the other uses a scoop to collect loose regolith fines. Scooping was planned to be first method performed on Mars because materials could be readily scooped multiple times and used to remove any remaining, minute terrestrial contaminants from the sample processing system, the Collection and Handling for In-Situ Martian Rock Analysis (CHIMRA). Because of this cleaning effort, the ideal first material to be scooped would consist of fine to very fine sand, like the interior of the Serpent Dune studied by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit team in 2004 [1]. The MSL team selected a linear eolian deposit in the lee of a group of cobbles they named Rocknest (Fig. 1) as likely to be similar to Serpent Dune. Following the definitions in Chapter 13 of Bagnold [2], the deposit is termed a sand shadow. The scooping campaign occurred over approximately 6 weeks in October and November 2012. To support these activities, the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) acquired images for engineering support/assessment and scientific inquiry.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-27937 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 18-22 Mar. 2013; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission successfully launched on September 8th, 2016. During its rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu beginning in 2018, OSIRIS-REx will characterize the asteroid's physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties in an effort to globally map the properties of Bennu, a primitive carbonaceous asteroid, and choose a sampling location]. In preparation for these observations, analog samples were spectrally characterized across visible, near- and thermal-infrared wavelengths and were used in initial tests on mineral-phase-detection and abundance-determination software algorithms.
    Keywords: Astronomy; Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-38482 , Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2017; 10-14 Apr. 2017; Montevideo; Uruguay
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: We have developed a means of equalizing the atmospheric signature in Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) infrared data over regions with large topography such as the Valles Marineris (VM). This equalization allows for the analysis of compositional variations in regions that previously have been difficult to study because of the large differences in atmospheric path length that result from large changes in surface elevation. Specifically, our motivation for this study is to examine deposits that are small at the scales observable by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard Mars Global Surveyor, but which are more readily resolved with THEMIS.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 1; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-1
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: NASA's OSIRIS-REx sample return mission launched on September 8th, 2016 to rendezvous with B-type asteroid (101955) Bennu in 2018. Type C and B asteroids have been linked to carbonaceous chondrites because of their similar visible - to - near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectral properties [e.g., 1,2]. The OSIRIS-REx Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (OVIRS) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) will make spectroscopic observations of Bennu during the encounter. Constraining the presence or absence of hydrous minerals (e.g., Ca-carbonate, phyllosilicates) and organic molecules will be key to characterizing Bennu [3] prior to sample site selection. The goal of this study was to develop a suite of analog and meteorite samples and obtain their spectral properties over the wavelength ranges of OVIRS (0.4- 4.3 micrometer) and OTES (5.0-50 micrometer). These spectral data were used to validate the mission science-data processing system. We discuss the reasoning behind the study and share lessons learned.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-CN-38850 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 20-24 Mar. 2017; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission has discovered a remarkable accumulation of crystalline hematite ((alpha-Fe2O3) that covers an area with very sharp boundaries approximately 350 by 350-750 km in size centered near 2 S latitude between 0 and 5 W longitude (Sinus Meridiani). Crystalline hematite is uniquely identified by the presence of fundamental vibrational absorption features centered near 300, 450, and 〉525/cm, and by the absence of silicate fundamentals in the 1000/cm region. Spectral features resulting from atmospheric CO2, dust, and water ice were removed using a radiative transfer model. The spectral properties unique to Sinus Meridiani were emphasized by removing the average spectrum of the surrounding region. The depth and shape of the hematite fundamental bands show that the hematite is crystalline and relatively coarse grained (〉5-10 micron). Diameters up to and greater than 100s of micrometers are permitted within the instrumental noise and natural variability of hematite spectra. Hematite particles 〈5-10 micron in diameter (either as an unpacked or hard-packed powders) fail to match the TES spectra. The spectrally-derived areal abundance of hematite varies with particle size from approximately 10% for particles 〉30 micron in diameter to 40-60% for unpacked 10 micron powders. The hematite in Sinus Meridiani is thus distinct from the fine-grained (diameter 〈5-10 micron), red, crystalline hematite considered, on the basis of visible, near-IR data, to be a minor spectral component in Martian bright regions like Olympus-Amazonis. Sinus Meridiani hematite is closely associated with a smooth, layered, friable surface that is interpreted to be sedimentary in origin. This material may be the uppermost surface in the region, indicating that it could be a late-stage sedimentary unit, or it could be a layered portion of the heavily cratered plains units. We consider five possible mechanisms for the formation of coarse-grained, crystalline hematite. These processes fall into two classes depending on whether they require a significant amount of near-surface water: (1) chemical precipitation that includes origin by (a) precipitation from oxygenated, Fe-rich water (iron formations), (b) hydrothermal extraction and crystal growth.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Martian rock and soil, collected by robotic spacecraft, will be returned to terrestrial laboratories early in the next century. Current plans call for the samples to be immediately placed into biological containment and tested for signs of present or past life and biological hazards. It is recommended that "Controlled distribution of unsterilized materials from Mars should occur only if rigorous analyses determine that the materials do not constitute a biological hazard. If any portion of the sample is removed from containment prior to completion of these analyses it should first be sterilized." While sterilization of Mars samples may not be required, an acceptable method must be available before the samples are returned to Earth. The sterilization method should be capable of destroying a wide range of organisms with minimal effects on the geologic samples. A variety of biological sterilization techniques and materials are currently in use, including dry heat, high pressure steam, gases, plasmas and ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation is routinely used to inactivate viruses and destroy bacteria in medical research. Many commercial sterilizers use Co-60 , which emits gamma photons of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV. Absorbed doses of approximately 1 Mrad (10(exp 8) ergs/g) destroy most bacteria. This study investigates the effects of lethal doses of Co-60 gamma radiation on materials similar to those anticipated to be returned from Mars. The goals are to determine the gamma dose required to kill microorganisms in rock and soil samples and to determine the effects of gamma sterilization on the samples' isotopic, chemical and physical properties. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Fifth International Conference on Mars; LPI-Contrib-972
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