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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: The Kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, is one of the most important bony fishes in Iranian coastal of Caspian Sea. Its harvest range is between 9000-10000 tons in a year, nearly 60% of the income of Bony fish fishery produced by kutum fishery. The stock of this species reduced drastically in 1982 and the catch slumped to the less than 250 tons in a year. Kutum spawning grounds deterioration, illegal catch, and lack of restocking program were the main cause of the decline. This Spices in nature comprised by two distinct form, autumn and spring form. It is worth to be mentioned, by the effect of Caspian Sea Bony fishes Research Center s experts in 1983, artificial spawning and releasing the fries to the sea were commenced and the catch steadily improved. But all activities concerning restocking of kutum concentrated in spring form, as at present about 260 million its fries are released into sea for restocking by Iranian Fisheries Organization, but for above reasons and lack of restocking program, the populations of autumn form gravely shrinked and neared to be extinct. Therefore, to enhance the biodiversity and boost fishers livelihood of kutum in Caspian Sea this project implemented by cooperation of Iranian Fisheries Organization (IFRO) and Caspian Environment Program (CEP) in Aquaculture Institute (Inland Waters). In this project, brooders caught from Anzali lagoon and maintained in two different condition, include of floating cages in Anzali lagoon and earthen ponds in Sefidrud Fisheries Research Station. The results showed that there weren’t significant differences between two maintenance statuses in maturation period and other reproductive characteristics of brooders. The ratio of male to female was 1 to 1.4. Minimum and maximum weight measured 1450 to 3100 g (with average of 1850 g) in female and 670 to 1900 g (with average of 1165 g) in male, respectively. The first natural spawning of brooders occurred in the end of January in temperature of 8 till 10 °C in concrete ponds. Also, some of maintained brooders in earthen ponds spawned in February. The average number of absolute, function and relative fecundity determined 88565 16809, 73805 14008 and 48670 12056, respectively. For artificial spawning, male and female brooders injected by pituitary gland with dose of 2-3 and 4-5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Approximately, 10 and 8 present of female were over-ripe and immature in March (artificial spawning time), respectively. More than 59 % of injected female brooders induced to spawning in first stage after 10-12 hours and 13 % of them in twice stage and 7-8 hours after first stage. And also, 27.6% of females didn’t positive response to injection. Dry method used for eggs fecundity and incubation period lasted 7- 10 days in 14-16 °C. In totally, eggs fertilization were more than 95% and the average of eggs fertilization percent in throughout of period measured more than 92.7 6 %. Eyed eggs appearance occurred 3 days after fecundity and its mean was 92.7 15.1%. Larvae after yolk sac absorption feed with dry milk for 4-5 days and then introduced into fertilized earthen ponds (500 m2 and equipped to aerators) in intensive condition and fed with micro pellet food for 3-4 month. In finally, more than 1.8 million fries of 1-2 g and some more than 5 g produced and released into Anzali lagoon to its restocking for first time. It is expected that continuing of restocking process of autumn form kutum by Iranian Fisheries Organization eventuate to population increasing of this form in Caspian Sea in future.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-23
    Description: Tilapia is one of African native fishes has been introduced to many thermal and temperate regions in the world for second part of twentieth century. First, intensive culture system dependes on complete and wide information in nutrition requirements, specially protein as most expensive nutrient; second, the importance of tilapia in future of Iran; and third, lipid as first non-protein energy source that is so influent and it’s unsufficient values affect negatively on growth and protein requirement, make us to investigating the protein and lipid requirement of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to achive a convience diet causing most economical interest by maximum growth and minimum feed conversion ratio. This experiment performed in Bafgh Inland Saline Water Fish Research Station. It was planned in four protein (15, 22, 29 and 36%) and three lipid (5, 9 and 13%) levels in factorial system. Thirty six 300 l tanks with 150 l water and 3 l/min water flow used for 12 treatments with triplicates. 15 male Nile tilapia fingerlings (13.94±0.88 g) kept in every tank and fed near satiation during 8 weeks experiment. There was any significant different in survival in all treatments. Growth performance (WG & SGR), feed and protein efficiency (FCR & C and PER & PCE respectively) improved with increasing proein level until 29%, however, significant positive effect was not observed by lipid increasing. Then, best economical protein and lipid level for convinienc growth performance and protein and lipid efficiency is 29 and 5% respectively. In 5% lipid, maximum growth and protein efficiency appears between 33.9 to 35.3% protein according to the mathematical method (polynomiyal curve).
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-06
    Description: Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of protein (%30, %35, %40, %45), fat (%8, %12, %16, %20) and total energy (3500,4000,4500,5000 kcal/kg) on growth of fingerling Roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus knipowitschi ) in four treatments with triplicates. The crude protein of experiment, fish averaged 2.60 gr stoking density of 25 fish/tank in a during of 57 days, the crude fat of experiment, averaged 5.30 gr stoking density of 15 fish/tank in a during of 67 days and the gross energy of experiment, averaged 5.30 gr stoking density of 25 fish/tank in a during of 57 days which reared into 100L-fiber glass tanks. At the end of each experiments, growth average parameters, such as weight gain(%), specific growth rate, food conversion ratio, condition factor and survival (%) were not significantly different among all treatments (P〉0/05) but protein efficiency ratio showed in fish fed of %30 and %35 protein at levels significantly different with another treatments (P〈0/05). In all of experimentes, significant difference was found whole-body protein, lipid contents of fish fed the different dietary protein, lipid and energy levels indicated that significant difference among of treatments. As regards the economics of feeding and effective protein utilization, the dietary containing %30, %16 fat levels and total energy 5000 kcal/kg would be suitable to growth roach fingerling.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-14
    Description: The aim of this study was to find the best location for establishment of rainbow trout culture and hatcheries farms on Zayanderood’s river region in Charmahal and Bakhtiyari province. This survey carried out over ten station along Zayanderood’s river. The result of physical and chemical analysis showd that the annual average of air temperature varied from 9.5oC - 10oC where the pH annual average value were between 7.5 and 8.8. the dissolve oxygen concentration in stations except in rainbow trout farm effluent were above 10 mg/l. the other chemical , pollutant as well as pesticides levels were under the limiting concentration for rainbow trout culture and Hatcheries activity. The plankton survey showed that the Bacillurophyta were the dominant group of phytoplankton where protozoa constituted the most abundant group of zooplankton the Benthic organisms sensitive to pollutant in particular Epirus were dominant group in all stations. In regard to fishes presence in river, five species of Ciprinidae, one species from Balitoridae and one species from salmonidae families were identified. The capacity for development of rainbow trout culture for tow phase period in Zayanderood’s river region with respect to self purification potential (self purification potential were determined from the oxidation of the effluent of the only active trout farm of the river region), minimum of 10 L/s water requirement for production of trout in concrete canal and pond system and 1 L/S water need for production in semi circular closed system were estimated to be 5202 metric tons.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-13
    Description: The biochemical composition of three groups of seaweeds; green (Ulva lactuca and Enthromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum illicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiea and Gracilaria corticata) from the Persian Gulf and the effects of seaweed extracts (SWE) either as a supplement or as an alternative media to the f/2 medium on the growth and composition of two microalgae Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros muelleri cultured as live food for Penaeus indicus larvae were investigated. Results showed that seaweeds were relatively high in carbohydrate and ash, but low in lipid. Lipid content in green seaweed was significantly higher than both the red and brown seaweed (P〈0.05). Protein content of both red and green seaweed was notably higher than brown seaweed (P〈0.05). The red and green seaweed had the highest proportion of saturated fatty acids, while the brown and red seaweed had the highest proportion of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The mineral compositions in seaweeds were found in the sequence of K〉Mg〉Fe〉Zn〉Mn〉Cu〉Co. The study clearly showed that the two microalgae I. galbana and C. muelleri could be successfully cultured using the various SWE either as a supplement or as an alternative to the f/2 medium. Since no major changes were found in most of the measured growth parameters, proximate composition, important polyunsaturated fatty acids and mineral content following culture of the microalgae with SWE as an alternative media, it was concluded that the SWE evaluated in the present study are able to provide the necessary nutrients for microalgae growth and could be used as a low cost nutritive media in establishing microalgal populations for use in aquaculture operations. The present study found that when shrimp larvae were fed on microalgae (exclusively or mixed) that had been cultured with SWE as a supplement media, they molted faster to mysis 2 (MII) stage compared to larvae fed on microalgae cultured with conventional f/2 media (Control). Maximum final total length, survival rate and specific growth rate were recorded for shrimp larvae fed on microalgae diets that included SWE as a supplement in the culture media compared to shrimp larvae fed the control diet. The overall growth performance clearly showed that P. indicus larvae were successfully reared using microalgae diets tested, and the shrimp larvae fed on mixed microalgae (I. galbana + C. muelleri) showed better larval growth, survival and development than those that were fed on single microalgal diet. Furthermore, similar larval growth, survival and development were obtained when shrimp larvae were fed with microalgae cultured with SWE as a substitute media to f/2 medium. In conclusion, microalgae cultured with SWE could potentially be used as a low-cost alternative method in producing live food for the hatchery production of shrimp larvae.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-23
    Description: Caspian trout is valuable, Commercial, anadromous and endemic fish species in the Caspian Sea so that, researchers attention have been focused on this species. At the moment, only pay attention to stocks rehabilitation that fisheries organization releases more than 300,000 fingerlings to the rivers ends to the Caspian Sea. Importance of this study consist (1) introducing a new species to the aquaculture system and (2) provide breeders in this research. we used from 2 treatments that consist with density of 10 kg/m^3 and 20 kg/m3 with 3 replication. Results showed, culture of Caspian trout is suitable with density 10 kg/m^3, so that weight gain, SGR and Daily growth mean are better than treatment 2(15-20 kg/m^3 )
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Fish meal production has been fixed in the world because of a limitation in fish stocks. On the other hand, demand of fish meal is growing daily and consequent the cost, too. Therefore, attention to the other protein sources is nessesary. Some plant protein sources, especially oilseeds, have valuable potentials for replacing fish meal because of relative high production in the world and Iran and low cost. According to existing information and availability, cottonseed meal and canola meal were selected as oilseeds; and Azolla was considered whether to be controlled in north provinces of Iran as weed. Growth indices (WG and SGR), food (FCR) and protein efficiency (PER and PCE) of fingerling Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated in 3 synchronous examinations with 12 treatments and 36 replications. Groups of control, canola meal (at rates of 25, 50, 75 and 100%), cottonseed meal (at rates of 15, 25, 35 and 45%), as the replacements of expensive protein sources (fish meal and soybean meal), and azolla (at rates of 13, 21 and 29% of diet) were studied. Growth indices, total food intake and protein intake of control group were higher than all diets contained plant protein sources. They decreased with plant protein increasing in every grous, separagely (p〈0.05). FCR and protein efficiency indices didn’t show any significant differences (p〉0.05) between control and canola meal (at rates of 25 and 50%), cottonseed meal (at rates of 15, 25 and 35%) and azolla (at rates of 13 and 21%). All plant protein ingredients were unpalatable, and consequent total food intake, protein consumption and growth decreased. It will be expected that Canola meal and cottonseed meal replace expensive protein sources at the rates of 50 and 35% respectively, and azolla use at the rate of 21% in diets If the problem in palatability solves.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-07
    Description: To regard to dramatic decreasing of pelagic fish and depending on fish meal for sturgeon Feeding a project with title on "Study of possibility of replacement of fish meal by poultry by product in formulated diet of Huso huso" in two faz (fingerling) and (Growth out) were carried out. In first faz, proximate composition of fish meal, poultry by product and diet ingredient were determined , thereafter Six test diets (contain 45% protein and 19 Mj kg^-1 energy) were prepared based on anchovy fish meal and poultry by-product substituted at levels of 20% (PBM_20), 40% (PBM_40), 60% (PBM_60), 80% (PBM_80) and 100% (PBM_100), respectively. Huso huso Fingerlings (28.42±0.17gr ± SD) were stocked in 18 fiberglass tanks and fed to satiation to eight week. Result indicated the highest final weight (FW), Weight gain (WG), Specific growth rate (SGR) and Protein efficiency ratio (PER) were belonged to control diet (350.52 ±21.86_gr),(1133.00 ±74.84%),(3.74±0.092 %per day) and (1.58 ±0.017) respectively. But No significant difference was detected between FM, PBM_20, PBM_40 and PBM_60 (P〉0.05), Also, there were not significant difference in treatments for Feed efficiency Ratio between (PBM_0), (PBM_20), (PBM_40), (PBM_60) (PBM_80) respectively (P〈0.05).But elimination of fish meal (PBM_100) led to significant increase in whole body protein (P〈0.05). In second faz (growth out period), Number of 180 Huso huso (107.89±5.19_gr ± SD) were stocked in 18 fiberglass tanks (volume 2000 lit) and fed by diets contain (40% protein and 20 Mj kg^-1 energy)that poultry by-product substituted at levels of 20% (PBM_20), 40% (PBM_40), 60% (PBM_60), 80% (PBM_80) and 100% (PBM_100) to satiation to 128 days. Biometry carried out one month interval. In the end of nutrition period highest final weight (FW) (844.2 ±2.44_gr), Weight gain (WG) (673.44 ±4.79 %) and Specific growth rate (SGR) (1.59 ±0.047% per day) were observed in fish fed control diet, but no significant differences were detected between (PBM_0), (PBM_20), (PBM_40), (PBM_60) and (PBM_80) respectively (P〉0.05).The best feed efficiency ratio belonged to fish fed PBM_40 that no significant differences with (PBM_20), (PBM_60) and (PBM_80) (P〉0.05).a significant decrease of body lipid observed by increasing of supplementation of poultry by product in diets that lowest body lipid (6.6±0.16) were stabilized in (PBM_80) (P〈0.05). the highest body protein belonged to fish fed PBM_20 (16.67±0.67) that significantly higher than body protein of fish fed PBM_60 (15.41±0.67) (P〈0.05), but no difference compare with other treatments (P〉0.05). also hepatosomatc index were significantly increase by increasing of poultry by product in diets respectively that highest were observed in fish fed PBM100 (4.2±0.63) (P〈0.05).Result of this investigation indicated that poultry by product had high potential for replacing of fish meal in fingerling and growth out Huso huso diet. Therefore suggested a investigation design for research about the effect of poultry by product on growth rate, body composition and immune system of Huso huso at long period for introduce a new replacer product Instead Of fish meal in sturgeon aquaculture industry.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-01-22
    Description: With regard to increasing the fish meal price, utilization of hygienic and analyzed poultry by product meal as an alternative protein source in diets for Huso huso within growth period were investigated. Six test diets isonitrogenous and isocaleric (contain 42% protein and 20 Mj kg-1 energy) were prepared. Fish meal was substituted by poultry by product at 20% (PBM20), 40% (PBM40), 60% (PBM60), 80% (PBM80) and 100% (PBM100) in base diet, respectively. A total of 180 Huso huso with average (±SD) weight of 107.89±5.9gr were stocked in 18 fiberglass tanks (Voloum:2000 lit,Temperature:20±2C 0) and fed satiation to 18 weeks. No significant differences were detected between final weight (FW),weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate of fish fed (PBM0), (PBM20), (PBM40), (PBM60) and (PBM80) respectively. The Highest protein belonged to fish fed PBM20 (%16.97±0.36) with significant difference with PBM40 (% 15.41 ± 0.67), respectively. Body lipid fish fed PBM80 and PBM100 (%6.63±0.016) (%7.49±0.17) were significantly lower than other treatments. The Synchronic hepatosomatic index increased with increasing poultry by product in diets and highest rate were found in fish fed PBM 100 , but except PBM20, visceral index in fish fed other treatments was same. The result showed that up to 80% fish meal could be replaced by poultry by product with no adverse effect on growth and feed conversion ratio for Huso huso within growth period.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-12-07
    Description: Evaporative fluxes from terrestrial porous surfaces are determined by interplay between internal capillary and diffusive transport, energy input, and mass exchange across the land-air interface. Turbulent airflows near the Earth's surface introduce complex boundary conditions that affect vapor, heat, and momentum exchange rates with the atmosphere. The impact of turbulent airflow on evaporation from porous surfaces was quantified using surface renewal theory coupled with a physically based pore scale model for vapor transfer from partially wet surfaces to individual eddies. The model considers diffusive vapor exchange with individual eddies interacting intermittently with a drying surface to quantify mean surface evaporative fluxes. The model captures nonlinearities between surface water content and evaporation flux during drying of porous surfaces, yielding close agreement with experimental results. This new diffusion-turbulence evaporation model provides a basic building block for improving estimation of field-scale evaporative fluxes from drying soil surfaces under natural airflows.
    Print ISSN: 0043-1397
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-7973
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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