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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-27
    Description: Recently, the nutritional requirements of marine finfish larvae have received considerable attention, and studies have shown that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) affects the growth and survival of marine finfish larvae. This study investigated the effects of different Artemia enrichments containing variable amounts of DHA and EPA on the growth and survival of larval Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). Four different Artemia enrichments ICES30/4 (with 20.90mg/g DW DHA and 6.29mg/g DW EPA), Sturgeon Ovary Oil (SOO) (with 2.76mg/g DW DHA and 7.55mg/g DW EPA), Cod Liver Oil (CLO) (with 7.64mg/g DW DHA and 11.39mg/g DW EPA) and Linseed Oil (LO) (with 0.00mg/g DW DHA and 0.03mg/g DW EPA) in seventy five aquaria (each 45 liter, with three replicates per treatment) were used. The resultant Artemia contained a different concentration of DHA (0.00-5.99mg/g DW) and EPA (0.69-4.97mg/g DW). Larvae were fed with Artemia from 3 to 20 days after active feeding at 250 prey 1^-1. Results showed that there were significant differences between treatments regarding to the total length and wet weight but no significant differences were found in dry weight between the larvae reared on different treatments. However, larvae reared on LO were significantly higher (in weight) than larvae reared on ICES30/4 and SOO. Larval survival on the SOO enriched Artemia (93.3±1.6) at 20th day was significantly higher than other treatments. Our results showed a positive effect of Artemia DHA proportions on growth and survival of the Persian sturgeon, and demonstrated that larvae of this species require a high ratio of dietary DHA to EPA.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: In order to introduce the best strain of Iranian Artemia cyst to larvicultural feeding of aquatic animals, biometrical characteristics of Artemia cysts and newly hatched nauplii of four different geographical regions of Iran (Maharloo Lake, Fars province, Meyqan Lake, Central province Urmia Lake and Fesendooze pond West Azarbaijan province) were determined. Whole cysts and decapsulated cyst diameters, chorion thickness, dry weight and total length of newly hatched nauplii were measured under stereomicroscope equipped with Motic 2000 software MLC – 150C, attached to a monitor. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA and tested with multivariate Duncan test. The results showed that Artemia urmiana cyst has a significantly larger diameter and nauplius total length than the other cysts (P〈0.05) (285.4 ± 0.53 µm and 511.8 ± 1.27 µm, respectively). Although the chorion thickness of the Meyqan cyst is higher than the others there are not any significant differences between them (P〉0.05). The smallest cyst diameter (276.8± 0.58 µm), nauplii total length (491.2±1.17 µm) and consequently the largest number of cysts per gram were obtained from Fesendooz. Due to the suitable size of Artemia samples for shrimp post larvae, ornamental and marine fish larval stage feeding it could be a good candidate for replacing imported expensive cysts.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-14
    Description: The brown seaweed Sargassum illicifolium is abundant along the Iranian coastline of the Oman Sea in which is rich in nutrients. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis which it can be used as a source of protein in shrimp diets. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory, 2013, where 3g shrimp juvenile acclimation in a 5000L tank. They were then kept in plastic tank containing 300L sea water and 30 shrimp juveniles in which were fed daily (3% of biomass) in four equal portions with one of four different diets in four repetitions for a period of 45 days. All diets contained 33% crude protein (isoprotein) and 355 kcal 100 g^−1 (isocaloric), with different percentages of Sargassum powder: Diet “A” 15%, Diet “B” 10%, Diet “C” 5%, and Diet “D” (Control) without seaweed. Final biomass values ranged from 120.89 to 128.66 g. L^−1; weight gains in biomass ranged from 106.49 to 124.36 g L^−1, and SGR ranged from 4.68 to 5.68% exhibited no significant differences between treatments (p〉.05). Survival rate 95.2 to 97.0% was almost equal under the four experimental conditions (p〉.05). Diets “A” and “B”, with a greater content of algae, exhibited better feed conversion (1.15:1 and 1.17:1) than diets “C” and “D” (1.30:1 and 1.33:1) (p〈.05). The physicochemical variables of the water showed no significant variation and remained within the standards necessary for the wellbeing of the animals. If sufficient biomass of beached algae can be practically and economically collected, it can be used as a component in the making of shrimp feed.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: Artemia has been widely used in aquaculture as a suitable live food. The presence of highly unsaturated fatty acids is a key factor that determines the nutritional value and marketing of Artemia for shrimp, marine larvae, sturgeon and ornamental fish industries. To determine the variation in nutritional content in cysts, decapsulated cysts and nauplii of Artemia from three different biotopes of Iran, were tested for their protein, lipid, energy, and fatty acid profiles, particularly essential fatty acids. The cysts collected from Urmia, Maharlou and Meighan lakes, were rinsed, processed, decapsulated, hatched and then analyzed for proximate and fatty acid composition using standard methods. Statistical comparisons of the results revealed significant differences not only in proximate composition but also in fatty acid contents (p〈0.05). The highest mean (±SD) level of protein (60.5±3.3%), lipid (18.60±1.1%) and energy contents (5448.3±10.4 Kcal/kg) were observed in Instar I nauplii hatched from Urmia Lake cysts, Instar I nauplii hatched from Maharlou Lake cyst and Instar I nauplii hatched from Urmia Lake decapsulated cyst, respectively. The highest content of DHA (0.78 mg/g DW) was observed in nauplii of cysts from Urmia Lake whereas it was around zero in other samples. The highest level of EPA (24.24 mg/g DW) was measured in nauplii from Maharlou Lake decapsulated cysts and the lowest (0.24 mg/g DW) was observed in Urmia lake cysts. The results revealed that the nauplii from decapsulated cysts of Maharlou Lake Artemia contained significantly higher levels of EPA and n-3 HUFA compared to others. Therefore, it is recommended to use it in aquatic larviculture.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-22
    Description: In this paper age determination and morphological characteristics of blacktip catfish, Plicofollis dussumieri, from Oman Sea were evaluated. A total of 132 fish specimens were collected from fishing trawlers or landings from March 2011 to July 2012, with minimum and maximum of 245 mm, 195 g; and 767 mm, 5801 g, respectively. Maximum life span was 12 years for the length range of 245 – 767 mm FL, while total body weight (BW) ranged between 195 and 5801 g and the resultant equation was: W = 0.040 L^2.8275 (R^2 = 0.99). High correlation coefficient value found between age and FL was R= 0.97 and for age-BW was 0.94. This value for otolith weight and BW was estimated to be 0.91 and showing that there were significant correlations between measured parameters. Lapillus otolith in blacktip catfish is the biggest otolith among most teleostei fishes, also the Sagitta is the biggest. Lapillus of this species is round, robust, onion-like and without sulcus curve, with no obvious growth increments in rostrum and antirostrum zones. In ventral side Gibbus maculae is concave having prominentia marginalis in anterior and basal line in posterior parts.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: Effects of Artemia urmiana enriched with ICES30/4 as a commercial emulsion of highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) on growth, survival, salinity tolerance and fatty acid composition of the Persian sturgeon larvae were evaluated. Artemia enriched for two different time periods (12 and 24 hours) and non-enriched artemia were fed to A. persicus larvae (average initial wet weight 46.80± 2.03mg) during 20 days. The n3-HUFA content ranged from 0.82±0.08 mg/g DW in non-enriched artemia to 7.69±0.2 mg/g DW in enriched artemia during 24 h with ICES30/4 and ranged from 3.20±0.30 mg/g DW in sturgeon fish larvae fed with non-enriched artemia to 5.98±0.43 mg/g DW in fish larvae fed with 24 h-artemia enriched with ICES30/4 after 20 days. The n3-HUFA content significantly increased compared to 12 h enrichment period both in artemia and sturgeons fed with these artemia (p〈0.05). A significant increase in survival percentages and salinity tolerance were observed between fish larvae fed with enriched and non-enriched artemia (p〈0.05), while growth rate did not significantly differ among the treatments (p〉0.05).
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: The effects of substituting dietary protein sources with different levels of Sargassum ilicifolium on growth, survival and body composition of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were investigated over the course of a 60 day experiment. A total of 360 juveniles (75±2.8 g) were randomly allotted to four treatment groups including control: with 100% basal diet (BD); T1: 5% sargassum meal (SM)+95% BD; T2: 7.5% (SM)+92.5% BD and T3: 10% (SM)+90% BD. Each treatment group was divided into three replicates of 30 fish per replicate. At the end of the experiment, our results showed that replacement of 5% and 7.5 % of basal diet with sargassum meal showed significant differences in average weight and total length, feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain percent (WG), condition factor (CF) and survival rate (SR). There were significant differences between calorie content of carcass in T2 and control with T1 and T3 (p〈0.05). The highest values of carcass protein content were observed in T1 (p〈0.05). There were significant differences between lipid content of fish in T2 and control with that of fish in T1 and T3 (p〈0.05). The highest values of carcass ash content were observed in T1, (p〈0.05) which were not significantly different from that in other treatments (p〉0.05). Levels all of amino acids were higher in fish in T2.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-07-13
    Description: Artemia sp. samples were gathered from three regions, including Urmia Lake, earthen ponds beside Urmia Lake and Ghom Salt Lake. After drying and grinding the samples chemical tests were implemented to determine nutritional value and the mineral composition of the samples. In the next step, under in vitro condition, protein digestibility of samples was determined with Pepsin enzyme method and active lysine was assayed by dye binding method. Results showed that nutritional value of Artemia sp. meal is variable. We found that species, region and season of harvest and biomass impurity bring about part of the variability.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: Aquatic insects as bioindicators and in order to determine water quality in relation to organic matters were used to evaluate the water quality of Fars Province streams and two drainages. Eighteen springs that were presumed to be undisturbed by human activities and two others, disturbed by human activities were chosen to show the effects of the pollutions. Insects fauna or each stream were sampled seasonally in a year period by D. framed aquatic net. Each species (with index value) was used for calculating the biotic index pollutants of these water resources. Water quality determined for 18 springs and two drainages, Based on these values. Chel Cheshmeh, Salavat, Shirin and streams had excellent water qualities (no organic pollution). Paeen, Tang-e-Bostanak and Kamfirooz had good water quality with possible slight organic pollution. Kavar and Barm-e-delak streams had fair water quality (significant organic pollution) and two drainages had poor water qualities (very significant and sever organic pollution). To compare the results, some physical and chemical parameters of water were measured.
    Keywords: Biology ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-01-14
    Description: Replacing live food with artificial diets in aquatic larviculture, especially in shrimp larvae not only is caused convenience feeding, but also in economical view is very important. With this object, in this survey, a density of 100.L -1 white leg shrimp larvae in 9 nutritional treatments each with three replicates were cultured in 20L tanks each one was held with 10L of 30% salty water using one air stone. The larvae were fed 4 times.day-1 with different diets, including live foods (Cheatoceros gracilis and Artemia nauplii), artificial diets (handmade and imported) and different combinations. The results showed that the growth rate and survival percentage in larvae fed with combination feed treatments, were more desirable than those fed with food and feed treatments and feeding with homemade and imported feeds alone, raised high mortality in shrimp larvae during the experiment. Also, it was denoted that even if the zoea larvae has been fed with live food, feeding with 100% artificial diets for the resting larviculture period won't be possible because of decreasing significantly in growth rate, total length and survival percent of shrimp larvae, compare to the other treatments. In addition, replacing partly of live food with artificial diet without adverse affects on growth and survival rates of white leg shrimp larvae will be possible and the observation supported that the handmade feed with given formulation, had more suitable results comparing to the imported one for mixing with live food economically. Therefore, we recommend that a mixture the formulated diet and algae plus Artemia nauplii is used for culturing white shrimp larvae.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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