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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-04
    Description: This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's project to demonstrate that careful design of aircraft contour the resultant sonic boom can maintain a tailored shape, propagating through a real atmosphere down to ground level. The areas in covered in this presentation are: (1) Past airborne shock measurement efforts, (2) SR-71 Sonic Boom Propagation Experiment (3) F-5E Inlet Spillage Shock Measurement (4) Flight test approach (5) GPS data (6) Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) Mach calibration (7) Super Blanik L-23 sailplane (8) Near-field probing (8a)Maneuvers (8b) Control Room Displays (8c) Pressure Instrumentation (8d) Signatures.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: In-flight airdata calibrations are used to determine the aerodynamic influence of an airplane on pitot-static pressure measurements of altitude and speed. Conventional flight-test calibration techniques are briefly reviewed and meteorological analysis methods for estimating calibration reference values of atmospheric conditions are described. There are cases where some conventional in-flight techniques are not entirely satisfactory for research aircraft because of added equipment requirements or flight envelope and location limitations. In these cases, atmospheric wind and pressure information can be used to complement conventional techniques. Accuracy of the atmospheric measurements and the variability of upper-air winds and pressure values are discussed. Results from several flight research aircraft show that wind reference calibration is generally less accurate than calibration accuracy standards for civil and research aircraft. Examples of pressure reference altimetry derived from meteorological analyses are also presented for a variety of flight research programs. These flight data show that the reference pressure accuracy provided by meteorological analyses is usually within civil aircraft and flight research airdata calibration accuracy standards. Meteorological analyses altimetry is particularly useful when it is not feasible to restrict the test airplane altitude, location, or maneuver envelope.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0293
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A system to calibrate airdata probes at angles of attack between 0 and 90 deg was developed and tested at the NASA Ames Dryden Flight Research Facility. This system used a test fixture mounted to the roof of a ground vehicle and included an onboard instrumentation and data acquisition system for measuring pressures and flow angles. The data could be easily transferred to the facility mainframe computer for further analysis. The system was designed to provide convenient and inexpensive airdata probe calibrations for projects which require airdata at high angles of attack, such as the F-18 High Alpha Research Program. This type of probe was tested to 90 deg angle of attack in a wind tunnel and using the ground vehicle system. The results of both tests are in close agreement. An airdata probe with a swiveling pilot-static tube was also calibrated with the ground vehicle system. This paper presents the results of these tests and gives a detailed description of the test system.
    Keywords: RESEARCH AND SUPPORT FACILITIES (AIR)
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-0088
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The research airdata system of an instrumented F-104 aircraft has been calibrated to measure winds aloft in support of the Space Shuttle wind measurement investigation. The F-104 aircraft was equipped with a research pitot-static noseboom with integral angle-of-attack and flank angle-of-attack vanes and a ring-laser-gyro inertial reference unit. The F-104 aircraft and instrumentation configuration, flight test maneuvers, data corrections, calibration techniques, and resulting calibrations and data repeatability are presented. Recommendations for future airdata systems on aircraft used to measure winds aloft are also given.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 90-0230
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A survey of temperature measurements at speeds through Mach 8.0 on the first flight of the Pegasus air-launched booster system is discussed. In addition, heating rates were derived from the temperature data obtained on the fuselage in the vicinity of the wing shock interaction. Sensors were distributed on the wing surfaces, leading edge, and on the wing-body fairing or fillet. Side-by-side evaluations were obtained for a variety of sensor installations. Details of the trajectory reconstruction through first-stage separation are provided. Given here are indepth descriptions of the sensor installations, temperature measurements, and derived heating rates along with interpretations of the results.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NASA-TM-4330 , NAS 1.15:4330 , H-1672
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: This Section provides a brief introduction to airdata measurement and calibration. Readers will learn about typical test objectives, quantities to measure, and flight maneuvers and operations for calibration. The Section informs readers about tower-flyby, trailing cone, pacer, radar-tracking, and dynamic airdata calibration maneuvers. Readers will also begin to understand how some data analysis considerations and special airdata cases, including high-angle-of-attack flight, high-speed flight, and nonobtrusive sensors are handled. This section is not intended to be all inclusive; readers should review AGARDograph 300, Volume 1, "Calibration of Airdata Systems and Flow Direction Sensors" for more detailed information. [11-1] References 11-2, 11-3, and 11-4 also supply pertinent information to better understand airdata measurement and calibration and related terminology. Airdata are vital to successfully complete an aircraft's mission and are derived from the air surrounding the aircraft. These airdata encompass indicated and true airspeed, pressure altitude, ambient air temperature, angles of attack and sideslip, Mach number, and rate of climb. Typically, pitot and static pressures are sensed and converted (by mechanical means in the instruments themselves) into indications on the altimeter, vertical speed indicator, airspeed indicator, and Machmeter. Similarly, measured local flow angles establish angles of attack and sideslip, and the outside air temperature is measured and indicated in the cockpit. (Instruments that can perform the conversion, such as airspeed indicators, altimeters, and Machmeters, do not correct for errors in the input values.) These measured parameters are commonly input to the airdata computer which, using appropriate algorithms and correction factors (or calibrations, as discussed later), can provide other parameters, such as true airspeed, required by the aircraft's avionics or flight control system. The presence of the aircraft in the airstream causes input errors to the measuring instruments - the aircraft disturbs the air that it flies through, thereby also disturbing the airdata measurements. Figure 11-1 shows the airflow around an airplane wing. The air above the wing has lower pressure than the ambient air, while the pressure below the wing is higher than the ambient air. Compressibility and shock waves also disturb the air and affect the measurements. Compressibility effects become important above approximately Mach number 0.3. As a result the static pressure around an airplane varies considerably with location. Local flow angles also differ from the free-stream flow direction. In straight-and-level flight the airflow rises to the wing leading edge and falls below the trailing edge, causing errors in flow direction measurements. To some extent these errors can be studied in wind tunnels, but wind-tunnel measurements cannot replace in-flight measurements.
    Keywords: Avionics and Aircraft Instrumentation
    Type: Introduction to Flight Test Engineering, Volume 14; 11-1 - 11-17; RTO-AG-300-Vol-14
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Two F-18 aircraft were flown, one above the other, in two formations, in order for the shock systems of the two aircraft to merge and propagate to the ground. The first formation had the canopy of the lower F-18 in the tail shock of the upper F-18 (called tail-canopy). The second formation had the canopy of the lower F- 18 in the inlet shock of the upper F-18 (called inlet-canopy). The flight conditions were Mach 1.22 and an altitude of 23,500 ft . An array of five sonic boom recorders was used on the ground to record the sonic boom signatures. This paper describes the flight test technique and the ground level sonic boom signatures. The tail-canopy formation resulted in two, separated, N-wave signatures. Such signatures probably resulted from aircraft positioning error. The inlet-canopy formation yielded a single modified signature; two recorders measured an approximate flattop signature. Loudness calculations indicated that the single inlet-canopy signatures were quieter than the two, separated tail-canopy signatures. Significant loudness occurs after a sonic boom signature. Such loudness probably comes from the aircraft engines.
    Keywords: Acoustics
    Type: The 1995 NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop; Volume 1; 220-243; NASA-CP-3335-Vol-1
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: This paper describes ground-level measurements of sonic boom signatures made as part of the SR-71 sonic boom propagation experiment recently completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Ground-level measurements were the final stage of this experiment which also included airborne measurements at near and intermediate distances from an SR-71 research aircraft. The types of sensors were deployed to three station locations near the aircraft ground track. Pressure data collected for flight conditions from Mach 1.25 to Mach 1.60 at altitudes from 30,000 to 48,000 ft. Ground-level measurement techniques, comparisons of data sets from different ground sensors, and sensor system strengths and weaknesses are discussed. The well-known N-wave structure dominated r sonic boom signatures generated by the SR-71 aircraft at most of these conditions. Variations in boom shape caused by atmospheric turbulence, focusing effects, or both, were observed for several flights. Peak pressure and boom event duration showed some dependence on aircraft gross weight. The sonic boom signatures collected in this experiment are being compiled in a data base for distribution in support of the High Speed Research Program.
    Keywords: Acoustics
    Type: The 1995 NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop; Volume 1; 199-219; NASA-CP-3335-Vol-1
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2009-11-17
    Description: Airplane design studies have developed configuration concepts that may produce lower sonic boom annoyance levels. Since lower noise designs differ significantly from other HSCT designs, it is necessary to accurately assess their potential before HSCT final configuration decisions are made. Flight tests to demonstrate lower noise design capability by modifying an existing airframe have been proposed for the Mach 3 SR-71 reconnaissance airplane. To support the modified SR-71 proposal, baseline in-flight measurements were made of the unmodified aircraft. These measurements of SR-71 near-field sonic boom signatures were obtained by an F-16XL probe airplane at flightpath separation distances ranging from approximately 740 to 40 ft. This paper discusses the methods used to gather and analyze the flight data, and makes comparisons of these flight data with CFD results from Douglas Aircraft Corporation and NASA Langley Research Center. The CFD solutions were obtained for the near-field flow about the SR-71, and then propagated to the flight test measurement location using the program MDBOOM.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: High-Speed Research: 1994 Sonic Boom Workshop. Configuration, Design, Analysis and Testing; 171-197; NASA/CP-1999-209699
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: A flight program using the SR-71 airplane to validate sonic boom technologies for High-Speed Commercial Transport (HSCT) operation and potentially for low- or softened-boom design configurations is described. This program employs a shaped signature modification to the SR-71 airplane which is designed to demonstrate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) design technology at a full-scale HSCT operating condition of Mach 1.8 at 48,000 feet altitude. Test plans call for measurements in the near-field, at intermediate propagation altitudes, and through the more turbulent boundary layer near the Earth surface. The shaped signature modification to the airplane is comprised of added cross-section areas on the underside of the airplane forward of the wing and engine nacelles. Because the flight demonstration does not approach maximum SR-71 altitude or Mach number, the airplane provides more than adequate performance and maneuver margins for safe operation of the modified airplane. Probe airplane measurements in the near-field will use fast response pressure sensors. Far-field and ground-based boom measurements will use high response microphones or conventional sonic boom field recorders. Scope of the planned demonstration flights also includes ground level measurements during conditions which cause minimal signature distortion and conditions which cause high distortion of the signature.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: High-Speed Research: 1994 Sonic Boom Workshop. Configuration, Design, Analysis and Testing; 237-248; NASA/CP-1999-209699
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