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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Highlights • Deep-sea mineral exploration and exploitation licenses have been issued recently. • Mining will modify the abiotic and biotic environment. • At directly mined sites, species are removed and cannot resist disturbance. • Recovery is highly variable in distinct ecosystems and among benthic taxa. • Community changes may persist over geological time-scales at directly mined sites. Abstract With increasing demand for mineral resources, extraction of polymetallic sulphides at hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts at seamounts, and polymetallic nodules on abyssal plains may be imminent. Here, we shortly introduce ecosystem characteristics of mining areas, report on recent mining developments, and identify potential stress and disturbances created by mining. We analyze species’ potential resistance to future mining and perform meta-analyses on population density and diversity recovery after disturbances most similar to mining: volcanic eruptions at vents, fisheries on seamounts, and experiments that mimic nodule mining on abyssal plains. We report wide variation in recovery rates among taxa, size, and mobility of fauna. While densities and diversities of some taxa can recover to or even exceed pre-disturbance levels, community composition remains affected after decades. The loss of hard substrata or alteration of substrata composition may cause substantial community shifts that persist over geological timescales at mined sites.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-10-10
    Description: 25 September – 11 October 2017 (Bremerhaven – Bremerhaven)
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    In:  [Talk] In: InterPore 2017, 9. International Conference on Porous Media & Annual Meeting, 08.-11.05.2017, Rotterdam, Netherlands .
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-01-29
    Description: Die Erfindung betrifft ein mechanisches Tiefseesedimente-, marine Rohstofflagerstätten- und/oder Unterseehang- Stabilisierungsverfahren und/oder Regulierungs-/Konditionierungs-verfahren der hydraulischen Eigenschaften von Tiefseesedimenten aufweisend ein Injizieren einer gashydratbildenden Substanz in marine oder submarine Sedimente, wobei Gashydrat-Sediment-Verbünde gebildet werden.
    Type: Patent , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    AGU
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 123 (2). pp. 1235-1251.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Transport of fluids in gas hydrate bearing sediments is largely defined by the reduction of the permeability due to gas hydrate crystals in the pore space. Although the exact knowledge of the permeability behavior as a function of gas hydrate saturation is of crucial importance, state-of-the-art simulation codes for gas production scenarios use theoretically derived permeability equations that are hardly backed by experimental data. The reason for the insufficient validation of the model equations is the difficulty to create gas hydrate bearing sediments that have undergone formation mechanisms equivalent to the natural process and that have well-defined gas hydrate saturations. We formed methane hydrates in quartz sand from a methane-saturated aqueous solution and used Magnetic Resonance Imaging to obtain time-resolved, three-dimensional maps of the gas hydrate saturation distribution. These maps were fed into 3-D Finite Element Method simulations of the water flow. In our simulations, we tested the five most well-known permeability equations. All of the suitable permeability equations include the term (1-SH)n, where SH is the gas hydrate saturation and n is a parameter that needs to be constrained. The most basic equation describing the permeability behavior of water flow through gas hydrate bearing sand is k = k0 (1-SH)n. In our experiments, n was determined to be 11.4 (±0.3). Results from this study can be directly applied to bulk flow analysis under the assumption of homogeneous gas hydrate saturation and can be further used to derive effective permeability models for heterogeneous gas hydrate distributions at different scales.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 6
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    In:  DE 102009007453.8 ; NZ 593290 ; BG EP2394021 ; BR PI1007791-0 ; CA 2,754,356 ; CN 201080003778.8 ; CY EP2394021 ; DK EP2394021 ; EP 2394021 ; FR EP2394021 ; GE 12347/01 ; GR EP2394021 ; IN 5948/DELNP/2011 ; JP 2011546589 ; KR 1020117014773 ; NO EP2394021 (Patent)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-29
    Description: Verfahren zur Gewinnung von Methan aus Methanhydraten, mit den Schritten: Zuleiten von Kohlendioxid zu Methanhydratvorkommen, Wirkenlassen des Kohlendioxids auf das Methanhydrat unter Freisetzen von Methan und Einlagern des Kohlendioxids als Kohlendioxidhydrat, Abführen des freigesetzten Methans, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das zugeleitete Kohlendioxid superkritisches Kohlendioxid ist.
    Type: Patent , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    In:  [Talk] In: Taiwanese-German Joint Symposium on Marine Gas Hydrate: TaiGer VIII , 05.-06.04.2018, Bremen, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2018-05-24
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-11-12
    Description: We present a transport-reaction model (TRACTION) specifically designed to account for non-ideal transport effects in the presence of thermodynamic (e.g. salinity or temperature) gradients. The model relies on the most fundamental concept of solute diffusion, which states that the chemical potential gradient (Maxwell’s model) rather than the concentration gradient (Fick’s law) is the driving force for diffusion. In turn, this requires accounting for species interactions by applying Pitzer’s method to derive species chemical potentials and Onsager coefficients instead of using the classical diffusion coefficients. Electrical imbalances arising from varying diffusive fluxes in multicomponent systems, like seawater, are avoided by applying an electrostatic gradient as an additional transport contribution. We apply the model to pore water data derived from the seawater mixing zone at the submarine Mercator mud volcano in the Gulf of Cadiz. Two features are particularly striking at this site: (i) Ascending halite-saturated fluids create strong salinity (NaCl) gradients in the seawater mixing zone that result in marked chemical activity, and thus chemical potential gradients. The model predicts strong transport-driven deviations from the mixing profile derived from the commonly used Fick’s diffusion model, and is capable of matching well with the profile shapes observed in the pore water concentration data. Even better agreement to the observed data is achieved when ion pairs are transported separately. (ii) The formation of authigenic gypsum (several wt%) occurs in the surface sediments, which is typically restricted to evaporitic surface processes. Very little is known about the gypsum paragenesis in the subseafloor and we first present possible controls on gypsum solubility, such as pressure, temperature, and salinity (pTS), as well as the common ion and ion pairing effects. Due to leaching of deep diapiric salt, rising fluids of the MMV are saturated with respect to gypsum (as well as celestite and barite). Several processes that could drive these fluids towards gypsum supersaturation and hence precipitation were postulated and numerically quantified. In line with the varied morphology of the observed gypsum crystals, gypsum paragenesis at the MMV is likely a combination of two temperature-related processes. Gypsum solubility increases with increasing temperature, especially in strong electrolyte solutions and the first mechanism involves the cooling of saturated fluids along the geothermal gradient during their ascent. Secondly, local temperature changes, i.e. cooling during the transition from MMV activity towards dormancy results in the cyclic build-up of gypsum. The model showed that the interpretation of field data can be majorly misguided when ignoring non-ideal effects in extreme diagenetic settings. While at first glance the pore water profiles at the Mercator mud volcano would indicate strong reactive influences in the seawater mixing zone, our model shows that the observed species distributions are in fact primarily transport-controlled. The model results for SO4 are particularly intriguing, as SO4 is shown to diffuse into the sediment along its increasing (!) concentration gradient. Also, a pronounced gypsum saturation peak can be observed in the seawater mixing zone. This peak is not related to the dissolution of gypsum but is simply a result of the non-ideal transport forces acting on the activity profile of SO4 and Ca profiles.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-01-08
    Description: This paper describes the utility of developing marine system models to aid the efficient and regulatory compliant development of offshore carbon storage, maximising containment assurance by well-planned monitoring strategies. Using examples from several model systems, we show that marine models allow us to characterize the chemical perturbations arising from hypothetical release scenarios whilst concurrently quantifying the natural variability of the system with respect to the same chemical signatures. Consequently models can identify a range of potential leakage anomaly detection criteria, identifying the most sensitive discriminators applicable to a given site or season. Further, using models as in-silico testbeds we can devise the most cost-efficient deployment of sensors to maximise detection of CO2 leakage. Modelling studies can also contribute to the required risk assessments, by quantifying potential impact from hypothetical release scenarios. Finally, given this demonstrable potential we discuss the challenges to ensuring model systems are available, fit for purpose and transferable to CCS operations across the globe.
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject
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