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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-09-24
    Description: A number of sap-sucking insects harbor endosymbionts, which are thought to play an important role in the development of their hosts. One of the most important rice pests, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), harbors an obligatory yeast-like symbiont (YLS) that cannot be cultured in vitro. Genomic information on this YLS would be useful to better understand its evolution. In this study, we performed genome sequencing of the YLS using both 454 and Illumina approaches, generating a draft genome that shows a slightly smaller genome size and relatively higher GC content than most ascomycete fungi. A phylogenomic analysis of the YLS supported its close relationship with insect pathogens. We analyzed YLS-specific genes and the categories of genes that are likely to have changed in the YLS during its evolution. The loss of mating type locus demonstrated in the YLS sheds light on the evolution of eukaryotic symbionts. This information about the YLS genome provides a helpful guide for further understanding endosymbiotic associations in hemiptera and the symbiotic replacement of ancient bacteria with a multifunctional YLS seems to have been a successful change.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-11-24
    Description: We study the existence, uniqueness and regularity properties of solutions for the functional equation y ( t ) = b ( t ) y ( ( t )) + f ( t ), t [0, T ], where the delay function ( t ) vanishes at t = 0. Functional equations corresponding to the linear delay function ( t ) = qt (0 〈 q 〈 1) represent an important special case. We then analyse the optimal order of convergence of piecewise polynomial collocation approximations to solutions of these functional equations. The theoretical results are illustrated by extensive numerical examples.
    Print ISSN: 0272-4979
    Electronic ISSN: 1464-3642
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 3
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    Balkema
    In:  Rotterdam, Balkema, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-40, (ISBN 0-06-057199-3)
    Publication Date: 1993
    Keywords: FractureT ; Rock mechanics ; Chaotic behaviour
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-03-03
    Description: Author(s): G. Tsaur, N.-H. Kang, Z.-H. Xie, S.-H. Chen, and J. Wang Field-induced birefringence, also known as cross-polarization wave generation, has played an important role in ultrafast nonlinear optics. In this paper we analyze birefringence induced by relativistic collective motion of electrons driven by a high-intensity laser field. An analytical expression fo... [Phys. Rev. A 83, 033801] Published Wed Mar 02, 2011
    Keywords: Quantum optics, physics of lasers, nonlinear optics, classical optics
    Print ISSN: 1050-2947
    Electronic ISSN: 1094-1622
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-10-06
    Description: We report on a study that compares the properties of magnetic clouds (MCs) during the first 73 months of solar cycles 23 and 24 in order to understand the weak geomagnetic activity in cycle 24. We find that the number of MCs did not decline in cycle 24, although the average sunspot number is known to have declined by ~40%. Despite the large number of MCs, their geoeffectiveness in cycle 24 was very low. The average Dst index in the sheath and cloud portions in cycle 24 was −33 nT and −23 nT, compared to −66 nT and −55 nT, respectively in cycle 23. One of the key outcomes of this investigation is that the reduction in the strength of geomagnetic storms as measured by the Dst index is a direct consequence of the reduction in the factor VB z (the product of the MC speed and the out-of-the-ecliptic component of the MC magnetic field). The reduction in MC-to-ambient total pressure in cycle 24 is compensated for by the reduction in the mean MC speed, resulting in the constancy of the dimensionless expansion rate at 1 AU. However, the MC size in cycle 24 was significantly smaller, which can be traced to the anomalous expansion of coronal mass ejections near the Sun reported by Gopalswamy et al. (2014a). One of the consequences of the anomalous expansion seems to be the larger heliocentric distance where the pressure balance between the CME flux ropes and the ambient medium occurs in cycle 24.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-11-11
    Description: An attractive, but as yet generally unrealized, approach to cancer therapy concerns discovering agents that change the state of differentiation of the cancer cells. Recently, we discovered a phenomenon that we call “receptor pleiotropism” in which agonist antibodies against known receptors induce cell fates that are very different from those...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-08
    Description: High frequency mooring data were collected near the northern shelf edge of the Bay of Biscay to investigate the generation and propagation of internal tides and internal solitary waves (ISWs). During spring tide, strong nonlinear internal tides and large amplitude ISWs are observed every semi-diurnal tidal period. While onshore propagation was expected since the mooring is located shoreward of the maximum internal tidal generation location, both onshore and seaward traveling internal tides are identified. Within a tidal period at spring tide, three ISW packets are observed. Like internal tides, different ISW packets have opposite (seaward and shoreward) propagating direction. Based on realistic hydrostatic HYCOM simulations, it is suggested that advection by the barotropic tide affects wave generation and propagation significantly and is essential for the seaward traveling internal tides to appear shoreward of their generation location. A two-layer idealized non-hydrostatic model derived by Gerkema [1996] further confirms the effect of advection on the generation and propagation of internal tides. Moreover, the two-layer model reproduces one seaward propagating ISW packet and one shoreward propagating ISW packet, indicating that the offshore and onshore traveling ISWs are excited by nonlinear steepening of the seaward and shoreward traveling internal tides, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-11-26
    Description: This paper presents a frequency detection based inductive eddy current sensing mechanism to simultaneously sense the piston position and tilt angle of the mirror plate of large vertical displacement micromirrors that exhibit piston scan ranges above 100  μ m. This is accomplished by sensing the inductance change, and thus resonant frequency shift, of two microfabricated sensing coils packaged underneath the mirror plate. For demonstration purpose, the coils were paired with discrete circuit components to oscillate at 11.9 MHz and 12.5 MHz, respectively. The piston position and tilt angle of the mirror plate could be simultaneously monitored over a 500  μ m piston scan range, achieving a maximum piston sensitivity of 4.15 kHz/ μ m with a piston sensing resolution of 96 nm and a maximum tilt angle sensitivity of 60.5 kHz/° with a tilt angle sensing resolution of 0.0013°. Analytical modeling of the coil inductance change via image theory was also conducted, showing that the sensor sensitivity and resolution could be improved by increasing the coil oscillation frequency and decreasing the coil size.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-07-09
    Description: Many studies have investigated the individual effects of sedimentation or inundation on the performance of wetland plants, but few have examined the combined influence of these processes. Wetland plants might show greater morphological plasticity in response to inundation than to sedimentation when these processes occur simultaneously since inundation can negate the negative effects of burial on plant growth. Here, we evaluate this hypothesis by assessing growth of the emergent macrophyte Polygonum hydropiper under flooding (0 and 40 cm) and sedimentation (0, 5, and 10 cm), separately and in combination. Deep burial and high water level each led to low oxidation-reduction potential, biomass (except for 5-cm burial), and growth of thick, short roots. These characteristics were generally more significant under high water level than under deep burial conditions. More biomass was allocated to stems in the deep burial treatments, but more to leaves in the high water level treatments. Additionally, biomass accumulation was lower and leaf mass ratio was higher in the 40-cm water level + 10-cm burial depth treatment than both separate effects. Our data indicate that inundation plays a more important role than sedimentation in determining plant morphology, suggesting hierarchical effects of environmental stressors on plant growth. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep05612
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-03-18
    Description: Polymorphism in materials often leads to significantly different physical properties—the rutile and anatase polymorphs of TiO2 are a prime example. Polytypism is a special type of polymorphism, occurring in layered materials when the geometry of a repeating structural layer is maintained but the layer-stacking sequence of the overall crystal structure...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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