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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-06-28
    Description: Mammals are coinfected by multiple pathogens that interact through unknown mechanisms. We found that helminth infection, characterized by the induction of the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) and the activation of the transcription factor Stat6, reactivated murine gamma-herpesvirus infection in vivo. IL-4 promoted viral replication and blocked the antiviral effects of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) by inducing Stat6 binding to the promoter for an important viral transcriptional transactivator. IL-4 also reactivated human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from latency in cultured cells. Exogenous IL-4 plus blockade of IFNgamma reactivated latent murine gamma-herpesvirus infection in vivo, suggesting a "two-signal" model for viral reactivation. Thus, chronic herpesvirus infection, a component of the mammalian virome, is regulated by the counterpoised actions of multiple cytokines on viral promoters that have evolved to sense host immune status.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4531374/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4531374/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reese, T A -- Wakeman, B S -- Choi, H S -- Hufford, M M -- Huang, S C -- Zhang, X -- Buck, M D -- Jezewski, A -- Kambal, A -- Liu, C Y -- Goel, G -- Murray, P J -- Xavier, R J -- Kaplan, M H -- Renne, R -- Speck, S H -- Artyomov, M N -- Pearce, E J -- Virgin, H W -- AI032573/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI084887/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA119917/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA164062/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA52004/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI032573/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084887/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI095282/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA052004/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA119917/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA164062/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057160/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Aug 1;345(6196):573-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1254517. Epub 2014 Jun 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Emory University Vaccine Center, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. ; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. ; Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. ; Center for Computational and Integrative Biology and Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Departments of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. virgin@wustl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24968940" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Gammaherpesvirinae/genetics/*physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Viral ; Herpesvirus 8, Human/genetics/*physiology ; Humans ; Interferon-gamma/*immunology/pharmacology ; Interleukin-4/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Macrophages/immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Nematospiroides dubius/immunology ; Ovum/immunology ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; STAT6 Transcription Factor/*metabolism ; Schistosoma mansoni/*immunology ; Schistosomiasis mansoni/*immunology ; Strongylida Infections/immunology ; Virus Activation/drug effects/genetics/*physiology ; Virus Latency/physiology ; Virus Replication/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-08-02
    Description: The mammalian intestine is colonized by beneficial commensal bacteria and is a site of infection by pathogens, including helminth parasites. Helminths induce potent immunomodulatory effects, but whether these effects are mediated by direct regulation of host immunity or indirectly through eliciting changes in the microbiota is unknown. We tested this in the context of virus-helminth coinfection. Helminth coinfection resulted in impaired antiviral immunity and was associated with changes in the microbiota and STAT6-dependent helminth-induced alternative activation of macrophages. Notably, helminth-induced impairment of antiviral immunity was evident in germ-free mice, but neutralization of Ym1, a chitinase-like molecule that is associated with alternatively activated macrophages, could partially restore antiviral immunity. These data indicate that helminth-induced immunomodulation occurs independently of changes in the microbiota but is dependent on Ym1.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4548887/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4548887/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Osborne, Lisa C -- Monticelli, Laurel A -- Nice, Timothy J -- Sutherland, Tara E -- Siracusa, Mark C -- Hepworth, Matthew R -- Tomov, Vesselin T -- Kobuley, Dmytro -- Tran, Sara V -- Bittinger, Kyle -- Bailey, Aubrey G -- Laughlin, Alice L -- Boucher, Jean-Luc -- Wherry, E John -- Bushman, Frederic D -- Allen, Judith E -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Artis, David -- 095831/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 2-P30 CA016520/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5T32A100716334/PHS HHS/ -- AI061570/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI074878/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI082630/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI083022/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI087990/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI095466/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI095608/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI097333/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI102942/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI106697/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- F32 AI085828/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- F32-AI085828/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272201300006C/PHS HHS/ -- K08 DK097301/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K08-DK097301/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- MR/J001929/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P01 AI106697/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30-AI045008/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30-DK050306/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI 084887/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI061570/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI074878/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI095466/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI097333/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI102942/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI087990/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32-AI007532/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI095608/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Aug 1;345(6196):578-82. doi: 10.1126/science.1256942. Epub 2014 Jul 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. ; Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie Pharmacologiques et Toxicologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France. ; Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. dartis@mail.med.upenn.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25082704" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Caliciviridae Infections/*immunology ; Coinfection/*immunology/microbiology/parasitology ; Gastroenteritis/*immunology/virology ; Germ-Free Life ; *Immunomodulation ; Intestines/immunology/microbiology/virology ; Lectins/*immunology ; Macrophage Activation ; Macrophages/immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Microbiota/*immunology ; Norovirus/*immunology ; Trichinella/*immunology ; Trichinellosis/*immunology ; beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-11-29
    Description: Norovirus gastroenteritis is a major public health burden worldwide. Although fecal shedding is important for transmission of enteric viruses, little is known about the immune factors that restrict persistent enteric infection. We report here that although the cytokines interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and IFN-beta prevented the systemic spread of murine norovirus (MNoV), only IFN-lambda controlled persistent enteric infection. Infection-dependent induction of IFN-lambda was governed by the MNoV capsid protein and correlated with diminished enteric persistence. Treatment of established infection with IFN-lambda cured mice in a manner requiring nonhematopoietic cell expression of the IFN-lambda receptor, Ifnlr1, and independent of adaptive immunity. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of IFN-lambda for curing virus infections in the gastrointestinal tract.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4398891/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4398891/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nice, Timothy J -- Baldridge, Megan T -- McCune, Broc T -- Norman, Jason M -- Lazear, Helen M -- Artyomov, Maxim -- Diamond, Michael S -- Virgin, Herbert W -- 5T32A100716334/PHS HHS/ -- 5T32AI007163/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 5T32CA009547/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA177194/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31CA177194-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084887/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007163/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009547/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI083019/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI106772/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 16;347(6219):269-73. doi: 10.1126/science.1258100. Epub 2014 Nov 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. virgin@wustl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431489" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptive Immunity ; Animals ; Caliciviridae Infections/*drug therapy/*immunology/virology ; Capsid Proteins/immunology/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/*immunology/*therapeutic use ; Feces/virology ; Gastroenteritis/drug therapy/*immunology/virology ; Immunity, Innate ; Interferon-alpha/biosynthesis/immunology ; Interferon-beta/biosynthesis/immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Norovirus/*immunology/*physiology ; Virus Replication ; Virus Shedding
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-11-29
    Description: The capacity of human norovirus (NoV), which causes 〉90% of global epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis, to infect a subset of people persistently may contribute to its spread. How such enteric viruses establish persistent infections is not well understood. We found that antibiotics prevented persistent murine norovirus (MNoV) infection, an effect that was reversed by replenishment of the bacterial microbiota. Antibiotics did not prevent tissue infection or affect systemic viral replication but acted specifically in the intestine. The receptor for the antiviral cytokine interferon-lambda, Ifnlr1, as well as the transcription factors Stat1 and Irf3, were required for antibiotics to prevent viral persistence. Thus, the bacterial microbiome fosters enteric viral persistence in a manner counteracted by specific components of the innate immune system.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409937/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409937/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Baldridge, Megan T -- Nice, Timothy J -- McCune, Broc T -- Yokoyama, Christine C -- Kambal, Amal -- Wheadon, Michael -- Diamond, Michael S -- Ivanova, Yulia -- Artyomov, Maxim -- Virgin, Herbert W -- 1F31CA177194/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5T32AI007163/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 5T32CA009547/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA177194/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084887/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007163/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009547/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI083019/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI106772/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 16;347(6219):266-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1258025. Epub 2014 Nov 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Departments of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. virgin@wustl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431490" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology ; Caliciviridae Infections/drug therapy/immunology/microbiology/*virology ; Cytokines/*physiology ; Female ; Gastroenteritis/drug therapy/immunology/microbiology/*virology ; Intestines/*microbiology/virology ; Male ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; *Microbiota/drug effects ; Norovirus/immunology/*physiology ; Receptors, Cytokine/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; *Symbiosis ; Viral Load ; Virus Replication ; Virus Shedding
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-02-01
    Description: The lysosomal degradation pathway of autophagy has a crucial role in defence against infection, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and ageing. Accordingly, agents that induce autophagy may have broad therapeutic applications. One approach to developing such agents is to exploit autophagy manipulation strategies used by microbial virulence factors. Here we show that a peptide, Tat-beclin 1-derived from a region of the autophagy protein, beclin 1, which binds human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Nef-is a potent inducer of autophagy, and interacts with a newly identified negative regulator of autophagy, GAPR-1 (also called GLIPR2). Tat-beclin 1 decreases the accumulation of polyglutamine expansion protein aggregates and the replication of several pathogens (including HIV-1) in vitro, and reduces mortality in mice infected with chikungunya or West Nile virus. Thus, through the characterization of a domain of beclin 1 that interacts with HIV-1 Nef, we have developed an autophagy-inducing peptide that has potential efficacy in the treatment of human diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3788641/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3788641/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shoji-Kawata, Sanae -- Sumpter, Rhea -- Leveno, Matthew -- Campbell, Grant R -- Zou, Zhongju -- Kinch, Lisa -- Wilkins, Angela D -- Sun, Qihua -- Pallauf, Kathrin -- MacDuff, Donna -- Huerta, Carlos -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Helms, J Bernd -- Eerland, Ruud -- Tooze, Sharon A -- Xavier, Ramnik -- Lenschow, Deborah J -- Yamamoto, Ai -- King, David -- Lichtarge, Olivier -- Grishin, Nick V -- Spector, Stephen A -- Kaloyanova, Dora V -- Levine, Beth -- K08 AI099150/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA142543/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM066099/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079656/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM094575/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS050199/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS077111/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS084912/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R0I DK083756/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R0I DK086502/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R0I GM066099/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R0I GM079656/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R0I NS063973/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R0I NS077874/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- RC1 DK086502/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008297/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057156/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54AI057156/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54AI057160/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Feb 14;494(7436):201-6. doi: 10.1038/nature11866. Epub 2013 Jan 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23364696" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Autophagy/*drug effects ; Cell Membrane Permeability ; Cells, Cultured ; Chikungunya virus/drug effects ; HIV-1/drug effects/metabolism/physiology ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Macrophages/cytology ; Membrane Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Peptide Fragments/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Virus Replication/drug effects ; West Nile virus/drug effects ; nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism ; tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in vitro. Previously, we and others described a form of noncanonical autophagy known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), in which phagosomes containing engulfed particles, including dying cells, recruit elements of the autophagy pathway to facilitate maturation of phagosomes and digestion of their contents. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in the Atg5 (ref. 8) and possibly Atg7 (ref. 9) genes, involved in both canonical autophagy and LAP, as markers of a predisposition for SLE. Here we describe the consequences of defective LAP in vivo. Mice lacking any of several components of the LAP pathway show increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies, glomerular immune complex deposition, and evidence of kidney damage. When dying cells are injected into LAP-deficient mice, they are engulfed but not efficiently degraded and trigger acute elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10. Repeated injection of dying cells into LAP-deficient, but not LAP-sufficient, mice accelerated the development of SLE-like disease, including increased serum levels of autoantibodies. By contrast, mice deficient in genes required for canonical autophagy but not LAP do not display defective dying cell clearance, inflammatory cytokine production, or SLE-like disease, and, like wild-type mice, produce IL-10 in response to dying cells. Therefore, defects in LAP, rather than canonical autophagy, can cause SLE-like phenomena, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860026/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860026/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martinez, Jennifer -- Cunha, Larissa D -- Park, Sunmin -- Yang, Mao -- Lu, Qun -- Orchard, Robert -- Li, Quan-Zhen -- Yan, Mei -- Janke, Laura -- Guy, Cliff -- Linkermann, Andreas -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Green, Douglas R -- 1ZIAES10328601/PHS HHS/ -- R01 AI040646/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI40646/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):115-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17950. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel 24105, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096368" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism ; Autoantibodies/blood ; *Autophagy/genetics ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/blood ; Inflammation/blood/genetics/*pathology ; Interleukin-10/biosynthesis ; Kidney/metabolism/pathology ; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood/genetics/*immunology/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism ; Phagocytes/cytology/physiology ; Phagosomes/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-11-29
    Description: The type I interferon (IFN) response protects cells from viral infection by inducing hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), some of which encode direct antiviral effectors. Recent screening studies have begun to catalogue ISGs with antiviral activity against several RNA and DNA viruses. However, antiviral ISG specificity across multiple distinct classes of viruses remains largely unexplored. Here we used an ectopic expression assay to screen a library of more than 350 human ISGs for effects on 14 viruses representing 7 families and 11 genera. We show that 47 genes inhibit one or more viruses, and 25 genes enhance virus infectivity. Comparative analysis reveals that the screened ISGs target positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses more effectively than negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Gene clustering highlights the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS, also known as MB21D1) as a gene whose expression also broadly inhibits several RNA viruses. In vitro, lentiviral delivery of enzymatically active cGAS triggers a STING-dependent, IRF3-mediated antiviral program that functions independently of canonical IFN/STAT1 signalling. In vivo, genetic ablation of murine cGAS reveals its requirement in the antiviral response to two DNA viruses, and an unappreciated contribution to the innate control of an RNA virus. These studies uncover new paradigms for the preferential specificity of IFN-mediated antiviral pathways spanning several virus families.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4077721/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4077721/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schoggins, John W -- MacDuff, Donna A -- Imanaka, Naoko -- Gainey, Maria D -- Shrestha, Bimmi -- Eitson, Jennifer L -- Mar, Katrina B -- Richardson, R Blake -- Ratushny, Alexander V -- Litvak, Vladimir -- Dabelic, Rea -- Manicassamy, Balaji -- Aitchison, John D -- Aderem, Alan -- Elliott, Richard M -- Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo -- Racaniello, Vincent -- Snijder, Eric J -- Yokoyama, Wayne M -- Diamond, Michael S -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Rice, Charles M -- 099220/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- AI057158/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI057160/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI083025/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI091707/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI095611/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI104972/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DK095031/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- G0801822/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- GM076547/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM103511/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HHSN266200700010C/PHS HHS/ -- HHSN272200900041CU19/CU/CSP VA/ -- K01 DK095031/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R00 AI095320/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI032972/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI091707/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI102597/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI104972/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI005284/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AR007279/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 30;505(7485):691-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12862. Epub 2013 Nov 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA (J.W.S.); MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, Scotland G61 1QH, UK (R.M.E.). ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Rheumatology Division, Department of Medicine, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Medicine and Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; 1] Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA [2] Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; 1] School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland KY16 9ST, UK [2] Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA (J.W.S.); MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, Scotland G61 1QH, UK (R.M.E.). ; 1] Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA [2] Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA [3] Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands. ; 1] Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Medicine and Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24284630" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cluster Analysis ; DNA Viruses/immunology/pathogenicity ; Flow Cytometry ; Gene Library ; Immunity, Innate/*genetics/*immunology ; Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology/metabolism ; Interferons/*immunology/metabolism ; Membrane Proteins/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Nucleotidyltransferases/deficiency/genetics/*immunology/*metabolism ; RNA Viruses/immunology/pathogenicity ; STAT1 Transcription Factor/metabolism ; Substrate Specificity ; Viruses/classification/*immunology/pathogenicity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-12-07
    Description: The yellow fever vaccine YF-17D is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed in humans. Despite its efficacy and widespread use in more than 600 million people, the mechanisms by which it stimulates protective immunity remain poorly understood. Recent studies using systems biology approaches in humans have revealed that YF-17D-induced early expression of general control nonderepressible 2 kinase (GCN2) in the blood strongly correlates with the magnitude of the later CD8(+) T cell response. We demonstrate a key role for virus-induced GCN2 activation in programming dendritic cells to initiate autophagy and enhanced antigen presentation to both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These results reveal an unappreciated link between virus-induced integrated stress response in dendritic cells and the adaptive immune response.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048998/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048998/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Li, Shuzhao -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Maddur, Mohan S -- Park, Youngja -- Jones, Dean P -- Chappert, Pascal -- Davoust, Jean -- Weiss, David S -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Ron, David -- Pulendran, Bali -- 084812/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 084812/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- N01 AI50019/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- N01 AI50025/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P51 OD011132/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057157/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057160/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 17;343(6168):313-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1246829. Epub 2013 Dec 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24310610" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Antigen Presentation ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Cell Line ; Cricetinae ; Dendritic Cells/enzymology/*immunology ; Enzyme Activation ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*biosynthesis/genetics ; Yellow Fever Vaccine/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-07-04
    Description: Preclinical studies of viral vector-based HIV-1 vaccine candidates have previously shown partial protection against neutralization-resistant virus challenges in rhesus monkeys. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector priming followed by purified envelope (Env) glycoprotein boosting. Rhesus monkeys primed with Ad26 vectors expressing SIVsmE543 Env, Gag, and Pol and boosted with AS01B-adjuvanted SIVmac32H Env gp140 demonstrated complete protection in 50% of vaccinated animals against a series of repeated, heterologous, intrarectal SIVmac251 challenges that infected all controls. Protective efficacy correlated with the functionality of Env-specific antibody responses. Comparable protection was also observed with a similar Ad/Env vaccine against repeated, heterologous, intrarectal SHIV-SF162P3 challenges. These data demonstrate robust protection by Ad/Env vaccines against acquisition of neutralization-resistant virus challenges in rhesus monkeys.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4653134/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4653134/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barouch, Dan H -- Alter, Galit -- Broge, Thomas -- Linde, Caitlyn -- Ackerman, Margaret E -- Brown, Eric P -- Borducchi, Erica N -- Smith, Kaitlin M -- Nkolola, Joseph P -- Liu, Jinyan -- Shields, Jennifer -- Parenteau, Lily -- Whitney, James B -- Abbink, Peter -- Ng'ang'a, David M -- Seaman, Michael S -- Lavine, Christy L -- Perry, James R -- Li, Wenjun -- Colantonio, Arnaud D -- Lewis, Mark G -- Chen, Bing -- Wenschuh, Holger -- Reimer, Ulf -- Piatak, Michael -- Lifson, Jeffrey D -- Handley, Scott A -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Koutsoukos, Marguerite -- Lorin, Clarisse -- Voss, Gerald -- Weijtens, Mo -- Pau, Maria G -- Schuitemaker, Hanneke -- AI060354/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI078526/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI080289/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI084794/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI095985/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI096040/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI102660/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI102691/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- OD011170/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI060354/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI080289/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084794/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI102660/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI102691/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 OD011170/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI080289/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI078526/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI095985/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI096040/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 17;349(6245):320-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3886. Epub 2015 Jul 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu. ; Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA. ; Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA 01772, USA. ; Bioqual, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. ; Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; JPT Peptide Technologies GmbH, 12489 Berlin, Germany. ; AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Frederick National Laboratory, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. ; Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; GSK Vaccines, 1330 Rixensart, Belgium. ; Janssen Infectious Diseases and Vaccines (formerly Crucell), 2301 Leiden, Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26138104" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Adenovirus Vaccines/*immunology ; Adoptive Transfer ; Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology ; Female ; Gene Products, env/*immunology ; Gene Products, gag/immunology ; Gene Products, pol/immunology ; Genetic Vectors/immunology ; HIV-1/*immunology ; Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics/immunology ; Immunization, Secondary ; Macaca mulatta ; Male ; SAIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*prevention & control ; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Viruses that infect the intestine include major human pathogens (retroviruses, noroviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses) that constitute a serious public health problem worldwide. These viral pathogens are members of a large, complex viral community inhabiting the intestine termed "the enteric virome." Enteric viruses have intimate functional and genetic relationships with both the host and other microbial constituents that inhabit the intestine, such as the bacterial microbiota, their associated phages, helminthes, and fungi, which together constitute the microbiome. Emerging data indicate that enteric viruses regulate, and are in turn regulated by, these other microbes through a series of processes termed "transkingdom interactions." This represents a changing paradigm in intestinal immunity to viral infection. Here we review recent advances in the field and propose new ways in which to conceptualize this important area.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751997/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751997/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pfeiffer, Julie K -- Virgin, Herbert W -- R01 AI074668/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI111918/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK 101354/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI114927/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R24 OD019793/OD/NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270). pii: aad5872. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5872. Epub 2016 Jan 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. julie.pfeiffer@utsouthwestern.edu virgin@wustl.edu. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. julie.pfeiffer@utsouthwestern.edu virgin@wustl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816384" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteria/immunology/virology ; Bacteriophages/physiology ; Fungi/immunology ; Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology ; Humans ; Intestinal Diseases/*immunology/*virology ; Intestines/*immunology/*virology ; Microbiota/*immunology ; Virus Diseases/*immunology ; Viruses/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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