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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-05-16
    Description: In porous media, the nonwetting phase is trapped on water saturation due to capillary forces acting in a heterogeneous porous structure. Within the capillary fringe, the gas phase is trapped and released along with the fluctuation of the water table, creating a highly active zone for biological transformations and mass transport. We conducted column experiments to observe and quantify the magnitude and structure of the trapped gas phase at the pore scale using computed microtomography. Different grain size distributions of glass beads were used to study the effect of the pore structure on trapping at various capillary numbers. Viscous forces were found to have negligible impact on phase trapping compared with capillary and buoyancy forces. Residual gas saturations ranged from 0.5 to 10%, while residual saturation increased with decreasing grain size. The gas phase was trapped by snap-off in single pores but also in pore clusters, while this single-pore trapping was dominant for grains larger than 1 mm in diameter. Gas surface area was found to increase linearly with increasing gas volume and with decreasing grain size.
    Electronic ISSN: 1539-1663
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-03-16
    Description: Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are highly aggressive tumors of childhood that are almost universally fatal. Our understanding of this devastating cancer is limited by a dearth of available tissue for study and by the lack of a faithful animal model. Intriguingly, DIPGs are restricted to the ventral pons and occur during a narrow window of middle childhood, suggesting dysregulation of a postnatal neurodevelopmental process. Here, we report the identification of a previously undescribed population of immunophenotypic neural precursor cells in the human and murine brainstem whose temporal and spatial distributions correlate closely with the incidence of DIPG and highlight a candidate cell of origin. Using early postmortem DIPG tumor tissue, we have established in vitro and xenograft models and find that the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway implicated in many developmental and oncogenic processes is active in DIPG tumor cells. Modulation of Hh pathway activity has functional consequences for DIPG self-renewal capacity in neurosphere culture. The Hh pathway also appears to be active in normal ventral pontine precursor-like cells of the mouse, and unregulated pathway activity results in hypertrophy of the ventral pons. Together, these findings provide a foundation for understanding the cellular and molecular origins of DIPG, and suggest that the Hh pathway represents a potential therapeutic target in this devastating pediatric tumor.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Leipzig : Engelmann
    Call number: H O 269
    Type of Medium: Monograph non-lending collection
    Pages: X, 748 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    Edition: 3. Aufl.
    Uniform Title: Popular astronomy
    Language: German
    Location: Pendulum room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
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    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  Berlin, Springer, vol. 10, no. Subvol. b, pp. 220, (ISBN: 0-08-037951-6)
    Publication Date: 1977
    Keywords: Textbook of physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-07-14
    Description: Interest in energy storage technologies is still increasing in times of the excess of electricity that is generated by wind farms or solar plants. Solar electricity can be transformed to solar-hydrogen via water electrolysis. A crucial part of the energy storage technologies plays the efficient conversion of H 2 and CO 2 from renewable resources. Here, the process conditions for continuously catalytic hydrogenation of CO 2 to CH 3 OH under supercritical conditions over lab-synthesized Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3  catalysts were investigated. The impact of temperature (230 – 330 °C), residence time (0.5 - 2.2 s) at moderate pressure (150 bar) but even above the supercritical parameters of CO 2 showed a selective CO 2 hydrogenation. Higher H 2 concentrations, respectively higher H 2 :CO 2 -ratios (H 2 :CO 2  = 6), lead to an increased selectivity of CH 3 OH. A possible in situ phase separation of reaction products within the reactor due to the higher densities of the reaction mixture by the highered pressure could affect the kinectics and simplfy the down-stream processing. The combination of thermodynamic studies (phase separation phenomena) as well as the catalytic performance tests for the CO2 hydrogenation under supercritical conditions are discussed. Based on these data a process concept is presented.
    Print ISSN: 0930-7516
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-4125
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Published by Wiley
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family mediate fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system. The molecular processes of neurotransmitter binding, subsequent opening of the ion channel and ion permeation remain poorly understood. Here we present the X-ray structure of a mammalian Cys-loop receptor, the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor, at 3.5 A resolution. The structure of the proteolysed receptor, made up of two fragments and comprising part of the intracellular domain, was determined in complex with stabilizing nanobodies. The extracellular domain reveals the detailed anatomy of the neurotransmitter binding site capped by a nanobody. The membrane domain delimits an aqueous pore with a 4.6 A constriction. In the intracellular domain, a bundle of five intracellular helices creates a closed vestibule where lateral portals are obstructed by loops. This 5-HT3 receptor structure, revealing part of the intracellular domain, expands the structural basis for understanding the operating mechanism of mammalian Cys-loop receptors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hassaine, Gherici -- Deluz, Cedric -- Grasso, Luigino -- Wyss, Romain -- Tol, Menno B -- Hovius, Ruud -- Graff, Alexandra -- Stahlberg, Henning -- Tomizaki, Takashi -- Desmyter, Aline -- Moreau, Christophe -- Li, Xiao-Dan -- Poitevin, Frederic -- Vogel, Horst -- Nury, Hugues -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 21;512(7514):276-81. doi: 10.1038/nature13552. Epub 2014 Aug 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2] [3] Theranyx, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France. ; 1] Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2]. ; Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ; Center for Cellular Imaging and NanoAnalytics, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5234 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, CNRS UMR 7257 and Universite Aix-Marseille, F-13288 Marseille, France. ; 1] Universite Grenoble Alpes, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [2] CNRS, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [3] CEA, DSV, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France. ; Laboratory of Biomolecular Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Unite de Dynamique Structurale des Macromolecules, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3528, F-75015 Paris, France. ; 1] Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2] Universite Grenoble Alpes, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [3] CNRS, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [4] CEA, DSV, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119048" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3/*chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: CHARGE syndrome is a multiple anomaly disorder in which patients present with a variety of phenotypes, including ocular coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genitourinary hypoplasia and ear abnormalities. Despite 70-90% of CHARGE syndrome cases resulting from mutations in the gene CHD7, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller, the pathways underlying the diverse phenotypes remain poorly understood. Surprisingly, our studies of a knock-in mutant mouse strain that expresses a stabilized and transcriptionally dead variant of the tumour-suppressor protein p53 (p53(25,26,53,54)), along with a wild-type allele of p53 (also known as Trp53), revealed late-gestational embryonic lethality associated with a host of phenotypes that are characteristic of CHARGE syndrome, including coloboma, inner and outer ear malformations, heart outflow tract defects and craniofacial defects. We found that the p53(25,26,53,54) mutant protein stabilized and hyperactivated wild-type p53, which then inappropriately induced its target genes and triggered cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis during development. Importantly, these phenotypes were only observed with a wild-type p53 allele, as p53(25,26,53,54)(/-) embryos were fully viable. Furthermore, we found that CHD7 can bind to the p53 promoter, thereby negatively regulating p53 expression, and that CHD7 loss in mouse neural crest cells or samples from patients with CHARGE syndrome results in p53 activation. Strikingly, we found that p53 heterozygosity partially rescued the phenotypes in Chd7-null mouse embryos, demonstrating that p53 contributes to the phenotypes that result from CHD7 loss. Thus, inappropriate p53 activation during development can promote CHARGE phenotypes, supporting the idea that p53 has a critical role in developmental syndromes and providing important insight into the mechanisms underlying CHARGE syndrome.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4192026/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4192026/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Van Nostrand, Jeanine L -- Brady, Colleen A -- Jung, Heiyoun -- Fuentes, Daniel R -- Kozak, Margaret M -- Johnson, Thomas M -- Lin, Chieh-Yu -- Lin, Chien-Jung -- Swiderski, Donald L -- Vogel, Hannes -- Bernstein, Jonathan A -- Attie-Bitach, Tania -- Chang, Ching-Pin -- Wysocka, Joanna -- Martin, Donna M -- Attardi, Laura D -- 1F31CA167917-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA167917/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA140875/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC009410/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM095555/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL118087/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL121197/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 9;514(7521):228-32. doi: 10.1038/nature13585. Epub 2014 Aug 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; 1] Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Cardiovascular Research Center and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA (C.A.B.); Department of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32827, USA (M.M.K.); Department of Emergency Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA (T.M.J.). ; Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; 1] Departement de Genetique, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, APHP, 75015 Paris, France [2] Unite INSERM U1163, Universite Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cite, Institut Imagine, 75015 Paris, France. ; Krannert Institute of Cardiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; 1] Department of Pediatrics, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA [2] Department of Human Genetics, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; 1] Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119037" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics/*metabolism ; Alleles ; Animals ; Apoptosis/genetics ; CHARGE Syndrome/*genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics ; Craniofacial Abnormalities/genetics/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Ear/abnormalities ; Embryo, Mammalian/abnormalities/metabolism ; Female ; Fibroblasts ; Gene Deletion ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mutant Proteins/metabolism ; *Phenotype ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/*genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-04-15
    Description: Myelination of the central nervous system requires the generation of functionally mature oligodendrocytes from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Electrically active neurons may influence OPC function and selectively instruct myelination of an active neural circuit. In this work, we use optogenetic stimulation of the premotor cortex in awake, behaving mice to demonstrate that neuronal activity elicits a mitogenic response of neural progenitor cells and OPCs, promotes oligodendrogenesis, and increases myelination within the deep layers of the premotor cortex and subcortical white matter. We further show that this neuronal activity-regulated oligodendrogenesis and myelination is associated with improved motor function of the corresponding limb. Oligodendrogenesis and myelination appear necessary for the observed functional improvement, as epigenetic blockade of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin changes prevents the activity-regulated behavioral improvement.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4096908/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4096908/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibson, Erin M -- Purger, David -- Mount, Christopher W -- Goldstein, Andrea K -- Lin, Grant L -- Wood, Lauren S -- Inema, Ingrid -- Miller, Sarah E -- Bieri, Gregor -- Zuchero, J Bradley -- Barres, Ben A -- Woo, Pamelyn J -- Vogel, Hannes -- Monje, Michelle -- 1S10RR02678001/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- K08 NS070926/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- K08NS070926/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY10257/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- T32 MH020016/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR025744/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 2;344(6183):1252304. doi: 10.1126/science.1252304. Epub 2014 Apr 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Pediatrics, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24727982" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, Thy-1/genetics ; Behavior, Animal/physiology ; *Cell Differentiation ; Cell Lineage ; Cell Proliferation ; Corpus Callosum/cytology/physiology ; Mice ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Motor Activity/physiology ; Motor Cortex/cytology/*physiology ; Myelin Sheath/*metabolism ; Nerve Fibers, Myelinated/*metabolism ; Neural Stem Cells/*physiology ; Neurons/*physiology ; Oligodendroglia/*cytology ; Rhodopsin/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-06-23
    Description: The reliability of Arctic climate predictions is currently hampered by insufficient knowledge of natural climate variability in the past. A sediment core from Lake El'gygytgyn in northeastern (NE) Russia provides a continuous, high-resolution record from the Arctic, spanning the past 2.8 million years. This core reveals numerous "super interglacials" during the Quaternary; for marine benthic isotope stages (MIS) 11c and 31, maximum summer temperatures and annual precipitation values are ~4 degrees to 5 degrees C and ~300 millimeters higher than those of MIS 1 and 5e. Climate simulations show that these extreme warm conditions are difficult to explain with greenhouse gas and astronomical forcing alone, implying the importance of amplifying feedbacks and far field influences. The timing of Arctic warming relative to West Antarctic Ice Sheet retreats implies strong interhemispheric climate connectivity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Melles, Martin -- Brigham-Grette, Julie -- Minyuk, Pavel S -- Nowaczyk, Norbert R -- Wennrich, Volker -- DeConto, Robert M -- Anderson, Patricia M -- Andreev, Andrei A -- Coletti, Anthony -- Cook, Timothy L -- Haltia-Hovi, Eeva -- Kukkonen, Maaret -- Lozhkin, Anatoli V -- Rosen, Peter -- Tarasov, Pavel -- Vogel, Hendrik -- Wagner, Bernd -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jul 20;337(6092):315-20. doi: 10.1126/science.1222135. Epub 2012 Jun 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Zuelpicher Strasse 49a, D-50674 Cologne, Germany. mmelles@uni-koeln.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722254" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arctic Regions ; *Climate Change ; *Cold Climate ; Geologic Sediments ; Ice Cover ; *Lakes ; Radiometric Dating ; Russia ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-09-21
    Description: Comments by de Jong et al., Solter et al., and Sloggett question the ecological relevance of the abundant microsporidia found in the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis. We contend that there is abundant evidence that native ladybirds feed on H. axyridis eggs and that interspecific microsporidial transfer is a common phenomenon, supporting the proposed role of these parasites as biological weapons.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vilcinskas, Andreas -- Stoecker, Kilian -- Schmidtberg, Henrike -- Rohrich, Christian R -- Vogel, Heiko -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Sep 20;341(6152):1342. doi: 10.1126/science.1242484.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Phytopathology and Applied Zoology, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, D-35392 Giessen, Germany. andreas.vilcinskas@agrar.uni-giessen.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24052293" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Beetles/*parasitology/*physiology ; *Food Chain ; *Introduced Species ; Nosema/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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