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  • 1
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    In:  Phys. Earth Plan. Int., Luxembourg, Deutsche Geophys. Gesellschaft, vol. 85, no. B11, pp. 265-272, pp. B11307, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1994
    Keywords: Stress drop ; Seismology ; PEPI
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  • 2
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    In:  Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., Taipei, AGU, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 861-874, pp. B06304, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1971
    Keywords: Dislocation ; Layers ; Elasticity ; BSSA
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  • 3
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    In:  Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., Taipei, AGU, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1-14, pp. B06304, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1972
    Keywords: Dislocation ; Layers ; Elasticity ; GJRaS
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-03-08
    Print ISSN: 0895-0695
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-2057
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-12-19
    Description: We completely reject the conclusions of P. Gasperini and Barbara Lolli made in the concluding remarks of their comments on the methodology and results of our paper (Wason et al . 2012). Based on reasoning and comparisons made between true values on the general orthogonal regression (GOR) line and the estimates of the variable given by the two procedures, we would like to reiterate that the proposed methodology is sound and provides improved estimates of the true points lying on the GOR line compared to the commonly used procedure for magnitude conversion. Hence, the use of the proposed method based on GOR in Wason et al. (2012) is suggested for magnitude conversion of data sets having error variance ratio of magnitudes ( ) less than or equal to 2.5. However, for  〉 2.5, the commonly used procedure of getting the unbiased estimates using observed values of the predictor variable in the GOR relation shall yield better estimates.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-03-03
    Print ISSN: 0895-0695
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-2057
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-05-31
    Description: SUMMARY In this study, a procedure for the application of general orthogonal regression (GOR) towards conversion of different magnitude types is described. Through minimization of the squares of orthogonal residuals, GOR relation is obtained in terms of the abscissas ( M x * ) of the projected points corresponding to the observed data pairs ( M x , obs , M y , obs ). In many studies, M x * is replaced by M x , obs in the GOR relation for convenience of obtaining the estimates of a preferred magnitude type for given magnitude values. Such forms of GOR, however, lead to biased estimates of the dependent variable. To represent the GOR relation correctly in terms of M x , obs , a linear relation has been obtained between M x * and M x , obs using given points and the corresponding projected points on the GOR line. Based on events data for the whole globe during the period 1976–2007, GOR relations have been derived for conversion of m b to M w, m b to M s, m b to M e and M s to M w following the proposed procedure and using specific error variance ratio (η) values. The superiority of the GOR relations obtained following the proposed procedure over the commonly used forms has been shown by computing the absolute average difference and standard deviation between the observed and the estimated values using events data not used in the derivation. It is observed that the proposed GOR relations yield better estimates compared to the commonly used GOR forms. This procedure has been further tested for a wide range of η values between 0.1 and 7.0. The procedure proposed in this study can be used for the purpose of catalogue homogenization where GOR relations are applicable for conversion of different magnitude types.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-08-08
    Description: For regression of variables having measurement errors, general orthogonal regression (GOR) is the most appropriate statistical procedure that yields a linear relation between the true values of the dependent ( y t ) and independent ( x t ) variables. However, the GOR procedure to obtain unbiased estimate of the dependent variable for a given error-affected value of the predictor variable is not well addressed in the literature. In the conventional GOR approach, the error-affected value of the predictor variable is substituted as such in the GOR relation, yielding biased estimates of y t . In another approach, the orthogonal projections of the given points on the GOR line are used to first estimate x t and then y t . In this study, a procedure making use of true points on the GOR line is proposed to obtain improved estimates of y t . The proposed GOR procedure is applied to the magnitude conversion problem between m b to M w and M s to M w , using real data set. The absolute average differences of the estimates obtained and their standard deviations are compared, indicating that the proposed GOR procedure provides improved estimates of the dependent variable ( y t ) compared with the conventional GOR approach. The improved unified magnitudes obtained using the proposed GOR procedure will result in more realistic seismic hazard for a given catalog and seismotectonic environment.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-11-01
    Description: A homogenous earthquake catalog is a basic input for seismic hazard estimation, and other seismicity studies. The preparation of a homogenous earthquake catalog for a seismic region needs regressed relations for conversion of different magnitudes types, e.g. m b , M s , to the unified moment magnitude M w . In case of small data sets for any seismic region, it is not possible to have reliable region specific conversion relations and alternatively appropriate global regression relations for the required magnitude ranges and focal depths can be utilized. In this study, we collected global events magnitude data from ISC, NEIC and GCMT databases for the period 1976 to May, 2007. Data for mb magnitudes for 3,48,423 events for ISC and 2,38,525 events for NEIC, M s magnitudes for 81,974 events from ISC and 16,019 events for NEIC along with 27,229 M w events data from GCMT has been considered. An epicentral plot for M w events considered in this study is also shown. M s determinations by ISC and NEIC, have been verified to be equivalent. Orthogonal Standard Regression (OSR) relations have been obtained between M s and M w for focal depths ( h  〈 70 km) in the magnitude ranges 3.0 ≤  M s  ≤ 6.1 and 6.2 ≤  M s  ≤ 8.4, and for focal depths 70 km ≤  h  ≤ 643 km in the magnitude range 3.3 ≤  M s  ≤ 7.2. Standard and Inverted Standard Regression plots are also shown along with OSR to ascertain the validation of orthogonal regression for M s magnitudes. The OSR relations have smaller uncertainty compared to SR and ISR relations for M s conversions. ISR relations between m b and M w have been obtained for magnitude ranges 2.9 ≤  m b  ≤ 6.5, for ISC events and 3.8 ≤  m b  ≤ 6.5 for NEIC events. The regression relations derived in this study based on global data are useful empirical relations to develop homogenous earthquake catalogs in the absence of regional regression relations, as the events catalog for most seismic regions are heterogeneous in magnitude types. ©2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
    Print ISSN: 0921-030X
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-0840
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography , Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-01-01
    Description: Pettiti et al. ( 2014 ) commented on our study on the effect of surface wave inversion non-uniqueness on 1D seismic ground response analysis. They showed in their analyses that non-uniqueness has negligible effect on Fourier amplification and response spectra, which is in disagreement to our earlier observations (Roy et al. in Nat Hazards 68:1141–1153, 2013 ). The apparent discrepancies are due to the differences in the definition of problem used in the ground response analyses. Pettiti et al. (2014) extended our original profiles to a depth of 60 m and then assumed the presence of high-impedance layer of velocity 1,240 m/s, irrespective of the half-space velocity obtained from the surface wave inversion. This resulted in similar kind of responses of all the profiles in spite of the differences in their shear wave velocity and thickness variations. Otherwise, the observations made by Roy et al. (Nat Hazards 68:1141–1153, 2013 ) confirm findings of previous studies on the same topic (e.g., Boaga et al. in J Geophys Eng 8:162–174, 2011 ). ©2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
    Print ISSN: 0921-030X
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-0840
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography , Geosciences
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