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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2000-02-26
    Description: The Caenorhabditis elegans Bcl-2-like protein CED-9 prevents programmed cell death by antagonizing the Apaf-1-like cell-death activator CED-4. Endogenous CED-9 and CED-4 proteins localized to mitochondria in wild-type embryos, in which most cells survive. By contrast, in embryos in which cells had been induced to die, CED-4 assumed a perinuclear localization. CED-4 translocation induced by the cell-death activator EGL-1 was blocked by a gain-of-function mutation in ced-9 but was not dependent on ced-3 function, suggesting that CED-4 translocation precedes caspase activation and the execution phase of programmed cell death. Thus, a change in the subcellular localization of CED-4 may drive programmed cell death.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, F -- Hersh, B M -- Conradt, B -- Zhou, Z -- Riemer, D -- Gruenbaum, Y -- Horvitz, H R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2000 Feb 25;287(5457):1485-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, 68-425, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10688797" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Substitution ; Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; *Apoptosis ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*cytology/embryology/genetics/*metabolism ; *Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; *Caspases ; Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics/metabolism ; Genes, Helminth ; Helminth Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Immunohistochemistry ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; Mutation ; Nuclear Envelope/*metabolism ; Phenotype ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 ; Repressor Proteins/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2005-05-28
    Description: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, about 21 nucleotides in length, that can regulate gene expression by base-pairing to partially complementary mRNAs. Regulation by miRNAs can play essential roles in embryonic development. We determined the temporal and spatial expression patterns of 115 conserved vertebrate miRNAs in zebrafish embryos by microarrays and by in situ hybridizations, using locked-nucleic acid-modified oligonucleotide probes. Most miRNAs were expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner during segmentation and later stages, but not early in development, which suggests that their role is not in tissue fate establishment but in differentiation or maintenance of tissue identity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wienholds, Erno -- Kloosterman, Wigard P -- Miska, Eric -- Alvarez-Saavedra, Ezequiel -- Berezikov, Eugene -- de Bruijn, Ewart -- Horvitz, H Robert -- Kauppinen, Sakari -- Plasterk, Ronald H A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Jul 8;309(5732):310-1. Epub 2005 May 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Hubrecht Laboratory, Centre for Biomedical Genetics, 3584 CT Utrecht, the Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15919954" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blotting, Northern ; Embryo, Nonmammalian/*metabolism ; Embryonic Development ; *Gene Expression ; In Situ Hybridization ; MicroRNAs/*genetics/*metabolism ; Multigene Family ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Oligonucleotide Probes ; Organ Specificity ; Time Factors ; Zebrafish/*embryology/*genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-07-13
    Description: A classic feature of apoptotic cells is the cell-surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) as an "eat me" signal for engulfment. We show that the Xk-family protein Xkr8 mediates PtdSer exposure in response to apoptotic stimuli. Mouse Xkr8(-/-) cells or human cancer cells in which Xkr8 expression was repressed by hypermethylation failed to expose PtdSer during apoptosis and were inefficiently engulfed by phagocytes. Xkr8 was activated directly by caspases and required a caspase-3 cleavage site for its function. CED-8, the only Caenorhabditis elegans Xk-family homolog, also promoted apoptotic PtdSer exposure and cell-corpse engulfment. Thus, Xk-family proteins have evolutionarily conserved roles in promoting the phagocytosis of dying cells by altering the phospholipid distribution in the plasma membrane.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Suzuki, Jun -- Denning, Daniel P -- Imanishi, Eiichi -- Horvitz, H Robert -- Nagata, Shigekazu -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jul 26;341(6144):403-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1236758. Epub 2013 Jul 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23845944" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; *Apoptosis ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/*metabolism ; Calcium/metabolism ; Caspases/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Membrane/*metabolism ; CpG Islands ; Humans ; Macrophages/physiology ; Membrane Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Phagocytosis ; Phosphatidylserines/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-07-03
    Description: Oxygen deprivation followed by reoxygenation causes pathological responses in many disorders, including ischemic stroke, heart attacks, and reperfusion injury. Key aspects of ischemia-reperfusion can be modeled by a Caenorhabditis elegans behavior, the O2-ON response, which is suppressed by hypoxic preconditioning or inactivation of the O2-sensing HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) hydroxylase EGL-9. From a genetic screen, we found that the cytochrome P450 oxygenase CYP-13A12 acts in response to the EGL-9-HIF-1 pathway to facilitate the O2-ON response. CYP-13A12 promotes oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into eicosanoids, signaling molecules that can strongly affect inflammatory pain and ischemia-reperfusion injury responses in mammals. We propose that roles of the EGL-9-HIF-1 pathway and cytochrome P450 in controlling responses to reoxygenation after anoxia are evolutionarily conserved.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3969381/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3969381/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ma, Dengke K -- Rothe, Michael -- Zheng, Shu -- Bhatla, Nikhil -- Pender, Corinne L -- Menzel, Ralph -- Horvitz, H Robert -- GM24663/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM024663/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM024663/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007484/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Aug 2;341(6145):554-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1235753. Epub 2013 Jun 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23811225" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/*metabolism ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/*metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Eicosanoids/metabolism ; Evolution, Molecular ; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/*metabolism ; Oxygen/*metabolism ; Reperfusion Injury/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-07-16
    Description: During animal development, the proper regulation of apoptosis requires the precise spatial and temporal execution of cell-death programs, which can include both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Although the mechanisms of caspase-dependent and -independent cell killing have been examined extensively, how these pathways are coordinated within a single cell that is fated to die is unknown. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans Sp1 transcription factor SPTF-3 specifies the programmed cell deaths of at least two cells-the sisters of the pharyngeal M4 motor neuron and the AQR sensory neuron-by transcriptionally activating both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways. SPTF-3 directly drives the transcription of the gene egl-1, which encodes a BH3-only protein that promotes apoptosis through the activation of the CED-3 caspase. In addition, SPTF-3 directly drives the transcription of the AMP-activated protein kinase-related gene pig-1, which encodes a protein kinase and functions in apoptosis of the M4 sister and AQR sister independently of the pathway that activates CED-3 (refs 4, 5). Thus, a single transcription factor controls two distinct cell-killing programs that act in parallel to drive apoptosis. Our findings reveal a bivalent regulatory node for caspase-dependent and -independent pathways in the regulation of cell-type-specific apoptosis. We propose that such nodes might act as features of a general mechanism for regulating cell-type-specific apoptosis and could be therapeutic targets for diseases involving the dysregulation of apoptosis through multiple cell-killing mechanisms.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3748152/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3748152/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hirose, Takashi -- Horvitz, H Robert -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 15;500(7462):354-8. doi: 10.1038/nature12329. Epub 2013 Jul 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23851392" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis/*genetics ; Base Sequence ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*genetics/*metabolism ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Caspases/*metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics/metabolism ; Repressor Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Sequence Alignment ; Sp1 Transcription Factor/*genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1991-03-08
    Description: Larval development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is controlled by the activities of four classes of chemosensory neurons. The choice between normal development and development into a specialized larval form called a dauer larva is regulated by competing environmental stimuli: food and a dauer pheromone. When the neuron classes ADF, ASG, ASI, and ASJ are killed, animals develop as dauer larvae regardless of environmental conditions. These neurons might sense food or dauer pheromone, or both, to initiate the specialized differentiation of many cell types that occurs during dauer formation. Entry into and exit from the dauer stage are primarily controlled by different chemosensory neurons. The analysis of mutants defective in dauer formation indicates that the chemosensory neurons are active in the absence of sensory inputs and that dauer pheromone inhibits the ability of these neurons to generate a signal necessary for normal development.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bargmann, C I -- Horvitz, H R -- GM24663/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1991 Mar 8;251(4998):1243-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2006412" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis/*growth & development ; Cell Survival ; Larva ; Models, Neurological ; Mutation ; Neurons, Afferent/cytology/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1982-05-28
    Description: The biogenic amines serotonin and octopamine are present in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Serotonin, detected histochemically in whole mounts, is localized in two pharyngeal neurons that appear to be neurosecretory. Octopamine, identified radioenzymatically in crude extracts, probably is also localized in a few neurons. Exogenous serotonin and octopamine elicit specific and opposite behavioral responses in Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that these compounds function physiologically as antagonists.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Horvitz, H R -- Chalfie, M -- Trent, C -- Sulston, J E -- Evans, P D -- GM07287/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM24663/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1982 May 28;216(4549):1012-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6805073" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Animals ; Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Caenorhabditis/*physiology ; Female ; Octopamine/*physiology ; Ovulation/drug effects ; Serotonin/*physiology ; Temperature
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1984-10-26
    Description: Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans genes lin-14, lin-28, and lin-29 cause heterochronic developmental defects: the timing of specific developmental events in several tissues is altered relative to the timing of events in other tissues. These defects result from temporal transformations in the fates of specific cells, that is, certain cells express fates normally expressed by cells generated at other developmental stages. The identification and characterization of genes that can be mutated to cause heterochrony support the proposal that heterochrony is a mechanism for phylogenetic change and suggest cellular and genetic bases for heterochronic variation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ambros, V -- Horvitz, H R -- GM24663/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM24943/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HD00369/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1984 Oct 26;226(4673):409-16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6494891" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis/*genetics ; Female ; *Genes ; Genetic Variation ; Male ; *Mutation ; *Phylogeny ; Time Factors
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-07-18
    Description: The elimination of unnecessary or defective cells from metazoans occurs during normal development and tissue homeostasis, as well as in response to infection or cellular damage. Although many cells are removed through caspase-mediated apoptosis followed by phagocytosis by engulfing cells, other mechanisms of cell elimination occur, including the extrusion of cells from epithelia through a poorly understood, possibly caspase-independent, process. Here we identify a mechanism of cell extrusion that is caspase independent and that can eliminate a subset of the Caenorhabditis elegans cells programmed to die during embryonic development. In wild-type animals, these cells die soon after their generation through caspase-mediated apoptosis. However, in mutants lacking all four C. elegans caspase genes, these cells are eliminated by being extruded from the developing embryo into the extra-embryonic space of the egg. The shed cells show apoptosis-like cytological and morphological characteristics, indicating that apoptosis can occur in the absence of caspases in C. elegans. We describe a kinase pathway required for cell extrusion involving PAR-4, STRD-1 and MOP-25.1/-25.2, the C. elegans homologues of the mammalian tumour-suppressor kinase LKB1 and its binding partners STRADalpha and MO25alpha. The AMPK-related kinase PIG-1, a possible target of the PAR-4-STRD-1-MOP-25 kinase complex, is also required for cell shedding. PIG-1 promotes shed-cell detachment by preventing the cell-surface expression of cell-adhesion molecules. Our findings reveal a mechanism for apoptotic cell elimination that is fundamentally distinct from that of canonical programmed cell death.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3416925/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3416925/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Denning, Daniel P -- Hatch, Victoria -- Horvitz, H Robert -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 9;488(7410):226-30. doi: 10.1038/nature11240.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22801495" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Apoptosis ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*cytology/*embryology/enzymology/genetics ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Carrier Proteins/metabolism ; *Caspases/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Cell Adhesion Molecules/deficiency/metabolism ; Cell Shape ; Embryo, Nonmammalian/*cytology/embryology/*enzymology ; Embryonic Development ; Endocytosis ; Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry/metabolism ; Mutation ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2009-03-03
    Description: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal degenerative motor neuron disorder. Ten percent of cases are inherited; most involve unidentified genes. We report here 13 mutations in the fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS) gene on chromosome 16 that were specific for familial ALS. The FUS/TLS protein binds to RNA, functions in diverse processes, and is normally located predominantly in the nucleus. In contrast, the mutant forms of FUS/TLS accumulated in the cytoplasm of neurons, a pathology that is similar to that of the gene TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP43), whose mutations also cause ALS. Neuronal cytoplasmic protein aggregation and defective RNA metabolism thus appear to be common pathogenic mechanisms involved in ALS and possibly in other neurodegenerative disorders.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kwiatkowski, T J Jr -- Bosco, D A -- Leclerc, A L -- Tamrazian, E -- Vanderburg, C R -- Russ, C -- Davis, A -- Gilchrist, J -- Kasarskis, E J -- Munsat, T -- Valdmanis, P -- Rouleau, G A -- Hosler, B A -- Cortelli, P -- de Jong, P J -- Yoshinaga, Y -- Haines, J L -- Pericak-Vance, M A -- Yan, J -- Ticozzi, N -- Siddique, T -- McKenna-Yasek, D -- Sapp, P C -- Horvitz, H R -- Landers, J E -- Brown, R H Jr -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Feb 27;323(5918):1205-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1166066.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 114 16th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. tkwiatkowski@partners.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19251627" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age of Onset ; Amino Acid Substitution ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Animals ; Brain/pathology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16/*genetics ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Exons ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Motor Neurons/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; *Mutation, Missense ; Neurons/metabolism/ultrastructure ; RNA/metabolism ; RNA-Binding Protein FUS/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Spinal Cord/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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