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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2007-08-11
    Description: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. A genome-wide search yielded multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15q24.1 region associated with glaucoma. Further investigation revealed that the association is confined to exfoliation glaucoma (XFG). Two nonsynonymous SNPs in exon 1 of the gene LOXL1 explain the association, and the data suggest that they confer risk of XFG mainly through exfoliation syndrome (XFS). About 25% of the general population is homozygous for the highest-risk haplotype, and their risk of suffering from XFG is more than 100 times that of individuals carrying only low-risk haplotypes. The population-attributable risk is more than 99%. The product of LOXL1 catalyzes the formation of elastin fibers found to be a major component of the lesions in XFG.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Magnusson, Kristinn P -- Sulem, Patrick -- Walters, G Bragi -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Stefansson, Hreinn -- Jonsson, Thorlakur -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Stefansdottir, Gerdur -- Masson, Gisli -- Hardarson, Gudmundur A -- Petursson, Hjorvar -- Arnarsson, Arsaell -- Motallebipour, Mehdi -- Wallerman, Ola -- Wadelius, Claes -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Kong, Augustine -- Jonasson, Fridbert -- Stefansson, Kari -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Sep 7;317(5843):1397-400. Epub 2007 Aug 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics Inc, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17690259" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/metabolism ; Amino Acid Oxidoreductases/*genetics ; Case-Control Studies ; Chi-Square Distribution ; Exfoliation Syndrome/*genetics ; Female ; Gene Expression ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genotype ; Glaucoma/*genetics ; Glaucoma, Open-Angle/genetics ; Humans ; Iceland ; Male ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2008-08-01
    Description: Reduced fecundity, associated with severe mental disorders, places negative selection pressure on risk alleles and may explain, in part, why common variants have not been found that confer risk of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. Thus, rare variants may account for a larger fraction of the overall genetic risk than previously assumed. In contrast to rare single nucleotide mutations, rare copy number variations (CNVs) can be detected using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. This has led to the identification of CNVs associated with mental retardation and autism. In a genome-wide search for CNVs associating with schizophrenia, we used a population-based sample to identify de novo CNVs by analysing 9,878 transmissions from parents to offspring. The 66 de novo CNVs identified were tested for association in a sample of 1,433 schizophrenia cases and 33,250 controls. Three deletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2 and 15q13.3 showing nominal association with schizophrenia in the first sample (phase I) were followed up in a second sample of 3,285 cases and 7,951 controls (phase II). All three deletions significantly associate with schizophrenia and related psychoses in the combined sample. The identification of these rare, recurrent risk variants, having occurred independently in multiple founders and being subject to negative selection, is important in itself. CNV analysis may also point the way to the identification of additional and more prevalent risk variants in genes and pathways involved in schizophrenia.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2687075/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2687075/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stefansson, Hreinn -- Rujescu, Dan -- Cichon, Sven -- Pietilainen, Olli P H -- Ingason, Andres -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Fossdal, Ragnheidur -- Sigurdsson, Engilbert -- Sigmundsson, Thordur -- Buizer-Voskamp, Jacobine E -- Hansen, Thomas -- Jakobsen, Klaus D -- Muglia, Pierandrea -- Francks, Clyde -- Matthews, Paul M -- Gylfason, Arnaldur -- Halldorsson, Bjarni V -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel -- Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Bjornsson, Asgeir -- Mattiasdottir, Sigurborg -- Blondal, Thorarinn -- Haraldsson, Magnus -- Magnusdottir, Brynja B -- Giegling, Ina -- Moller, Hans-Jurgen -- Hartmann, Annette -- Shianna, Kevin V -- Ge, Dongliang -- Need, Anna C -- Crombie, Caroline -- Fraser, Gillian -- Walker, Nicholas -- Lonnqvist, Jouko -- Suvisaari, Jaana -- Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamarie -- Paunio, Tiina -- Toulopoulou, Timi -- Bramon, Elvira -- Di Forti, Marta -- Murray, Robin -- Ruggeri, Mirella -- Vassos, Evangelos -- Tosato, Sarah -- Walshe, Muriel -- Li, Tao -- Vasilescu, Catalina -- Muhleisen, Thomas W -- Wang, August G -- Ullum, Henrik -- Djurovic, Srdjan -- Melle, Ingrid -- Olesen, Jes -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A -- Franke, Barbara -- GROUP -- Sabatti, Chiara -- Freimer, Nelson B -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Kong, Augustine -- Andreassen, Ole A -- Ophoff, Roel A -- Georgi, Alexander -- Rietschel, Marcella -- Werge, Thomas -- Petursson, Hannes -- Goldstein, David B -- Nothen, Markus M -- Peltonen, Leena -- Collier, David A -- St Clair, David -- Stefansson, Kari -- 089061/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0901310/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- PDA/02/06/016/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- R01 MH078075/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH71425-01A1/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Sep 11;455(7210):232-6. doi: 10.1038/nature07229.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CNS Division, deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18668039" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: China ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics ; Europe ; Gene Dosage/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genotype ; Humans ; Loss of Heterozygosity ; Models, Genetic ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Psychotic Disorders/genetics ; Schizophrenia/*genetics ; Sequence Deletion/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2009-07-03
    Description: Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, caused by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Research on pathogenesis has traditionally focused on neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly those involving dopamine. Schizophrenia has been considered a separate disease for over a century, but in the absence of clear biological markers, diagnosis has historically been based on signs and symptoms. A fundamental message emerging from genome-wide association studies of copy number variations (CNVs) associated with the disease is that its genetic basis does not necessarily conform to classical nosological disease boundaries. Certain CNVs confer not only high relative risk of schizophrenia but also of other psychiatric disorders. The structural variations associated with schizophrenia can involve several genes and the phenotypic syndromes, or the 'genomic disorders', have not yet been characterized. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome-wide association studies with the potential to implicate individual genes in complex diseases may reveal underlying biological pathways. Here we combined SNP data from several large genome-wide scans and followed up the most significant association signals. We found significant association with several markers spanning the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6p21.3-22.1, a marker located upstream of the neurogranin gene (NRGN) on 11q24.2 and a marker in intron four of transcription factor 4 (TCF4) on 18q21.2. Our findings implicating the MHC region are consistent with an immune component to schizophrenia risk, whereas the association with NRGN and TCF4 points to perturbation of pathways involved in brain development, memory and cognition.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077530/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077530/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stefansson, Hreinn -- Ophoff, Roel A -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Andreassen, Ole A -- Cichon, Sven -- Rujescu, Dan -- Werge, Thomas -- Pietilainen, Olli P H -- Mors, Ole -- Mortensen, Preben B -- Sigurdsson, Engilbert -- Gustafsson, Omar -- Nyegaard, Mette -- Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari -- Ingason, Andres -- Hansen, Thomas -- Suvisaari, Jaana -- Lonnqvist, Jouko -- Paunio, Tiina -- Borglum, Anders D -- Hartmann, Annette -- Fink-Jensen, Anders -- Nordentoft, Merete -- Hougaard, David -- Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent -- Bottcher, Yvonne -- Olesen, Jes -- Breuer, Rene -- Moller, Hans-Jurgen -- Giegling, Ina -- Rasmussen, Henrik B -- Timm, Sally -- Mattheisen, Manuel -- Bitter, Istvan -- Rethelyi, Janos M -- Magnusdottir, Brynja B -- Sigmundsson, Thordur -- Olason, Pall -- Masson, Gisli -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Haraldsson, Magnus -- Fossdal, Ragnheidur -- Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Ruggeri, Mirella -- Tosato, Sarah -- Franke, Barbara -- Strengman, Eric -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A -- Genetic Risk and Outcome in Psychosis (GROUP) -- Melle, Ingrid -- Djurovic, Srdjan -- Abramova, Lilia -- Kaleda, Vasily -- Sanjuan, Julio -- de Frutos, Rosa -- Bramon, Elvira -- Vassos, Evangelos -- Fraser, Gillian -- Ettinger, Ulrich -- Picchioni, Marco -- Walker, Nicholas -- Toulopoulou, Timi -- Need, Anna C -- Ge, Dongliang -- Yoon, Joeng Lim -- Shianna, Kevin V -- Freimer, Nelson B -- Cantor, Rita M -- Murray, Robin -- Kong, Augustine -- Golimbet, Vera -- Carracedo, Angel -- Arango, Celso -- Costas, Javier -- Jonsson, Erik G -- Terenius, Lars -- Agartz, Ingrid -- Petursson, Hannes -- Nothen, Markus M -- Rietschel, Marcella -- Matthews, Paul M -- Muglia, Pierandrea -- Peltonen, Leena -- St Clair, David -- Goldstein, David B -- Stefansson, Kari -- Collier, David A -- 089061/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1R01HL087679-01/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- PDA/02/06/016/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- R01 MH078075/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Aug 6;460(7256):744-7. doi: 10.1038/nature08186. Epub 2009 Jul 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19571808" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Genetic Markers/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genotype ; Humans ; Major Histocompatibility Complex/genetics ; Neurogranin/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics ; Schizophrenia/*genetics/immunology ; Transcription Factors/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Many diseases caused by trinucleotide expansion exhibit increased severity and decreased age of onset (genetic anticipation) in successive generations. Apparent evidence of genetic anticipation in schizophrenia has led to a search for trinucleotide repeat expansions. We have used several techniques, including Southern blot hybridization, repeat expansion detection (RED) and locus-specific PCR to search for expanded CAG/CTG repeats in 12 families from the United Kingdom and 11 from Iceland that are multiplex for schizophrenia and demonstrate anticipation. The unstable DNA theory could also explain discordance of phenotype for schizophrenia in pairs of monozygotic twins, where the affected twin has a greater number of repeats than the unaffected twin. We used these techniques to look for evidence of different CAG/CTG repeat size in 27 pairs of monozygotic twins who are either concordant or discordant for schizophrenia. We have found no evidence of an increase in CAG/CTG repeat size for affected members in the families, or for the affected twins in the MZ twin sample. Southern hybridization and RED analysis were also performed for the twin and family samples to look for evidence of expansion of GAA/TTC repeats. However, no evidence of expansion was found in either sample. Whilst these results suggest that these repeats are not involved in the etiology of schizophrenia, the techniques used for detecting repeat expansions have limits to their sensitivity. The involvement of other trinucleotide repeats or other expandable repeat sequences cannot be ruled out.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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