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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Water, air & soil pollution 61 (1992), S. 205-207 
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-0867
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Water, air & soil pollution 31 (1986), S. 449-462 
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The analysis of the “high altitude Norway spruce disease” leads to the deficient nutrient supply hypothesis as the dominant predisposing stress factor for the “new type” of forest decline in the research area (Southwest Germany). Photooxidants are seen as inciting factors causing physiological and anatomical damages in the foliage. Together with acid depositions (especially fog), the photooxidants cause increased leaching of the easily mobilized elements. Compensation for increased nutrient losses is possible for the trees depending on the availability of nutrient elements in the soil. The deficiency becomes acute at the time of the highest need of nutrients, i.e. at shoot development when last year's needles turn yellow. As the soil nutrient supply is a decisive factor for the occurence of the forest damages studied an improvement of the nutrient supply by application of fertilizers generally leads to the disappearance of these disease symptoms. Fertilization is therefore a tool to mitigate forest decline when related to an insufficient or poor nutritional status. Fertilization is not an adequate way to fight the “new type” of forest decline as it is fighting the effect and not the cause. It can, however, reduce the impact that air pollution has on forest trees by revitalizing stands and ameliorating soils.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Water, air & soil pollution 44 (1989), S. 93-118 
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract In central Europe the ‘new type’ forest damages have been observed since the mid 1970's. Various investigations indicate that the declines are frequently associated with nutritional disturbances. Good correlations between the site specific substrate chemistry and the actual nutritional status of the trees/stands were found. To explain the sudden and widespread appearance of the forest declines, adverse anthropogenic impacts mainly due to elevated emissions of air pollutants and their atmospheric derivatives are hypothesized in combination with natural stress factors. Causal mechanisms include soil degradation due to accelerated soil acidification and increased nutrient leaching from the canopy of forest stands. Fertilization and liming experiments have demonstrated that a fast and sustained revitalization and restabilization of declining forest ecosystems marked by nutritional disturbances can be achieved. This is demonstrated by chemical and histological foliar analyses generally combined with a visible improvement of the phenotype. Soil analyses reveal a considerable positive change of the chemical soil status due to the site and species specific application of appropriate amounts of fast soluble fertilizers and lime. Considering these recent favorable findings, as well as based on observations from historic fertilization and liming trials nutrient supplementation and liming have become common tools to counteract the new type forest damages in West Germany.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract “New type” forest damages have been observed in West Germany since the mid-1970's and discussed in North America since the early 1980's. Various types of damage are associated with typical foliar discoloration symptoms related to site characteristic nutritional disturbances. The macronutrients are generally Mg, Ca, and K. Based on foliar and soil analysis results diagnostic fertilization trials were established at a wide variety of sites and stands in West Germany as well as in North America. The appropriate application of fast soluble fertilizers proved that damage symptoms associated with nutritional disturbances can frequently be mitigated within a relatively short period. The observed visual revitalization corresponds well with foliar analysis data obtained continuously for the last 5 yr. Soil analyses also reflect the improved nutrient supply. Investigations of older fertilizer trials indicated that stands fertilized before the appearance of “new type” damage symptoms are considerably more vital when compared to the untreated control plots. Remarkable results were derived from histological research. Microscopic analysis of needles proved the regeneration potential on a histological level for moderately yellowed needles after fertilization. Furthermore, needles of nutrient deficient trees reveal typical differences of tissue damages when compared to SO2 fumigated or O3 impacted needles. Thus, histological investigations can be used as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between direct and indirect forest damages.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Water, air & soil pollution 48 (1989), S. 497-502 
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Annual terrestrial inventories carried out in West Germany since 1984 indicate that for the last 4 yr approximately 50% of the forests were damaged. The damages were and are commonly attributed to the adverse effects of acid rain and other air pollutants. As most decline types are associated with nutritional disturbances, it was found that the application of lime and/or fertilizers could reduce or even remove the damages. Therefore, the West German government has established a nationwide program by which up to 80% of the costs of fertilization in forests revealing ”new type“ forest damages are subsidized. In practice, a clear distinction is made between compensative and ameliorative fertilization methods. Compensative fertilization means the application of Mg containing lime (generally 3,000 kg-ha−1) to neutralize further acidic deposition in forest soils. The ameliorative fertilization is focused on the specific application of nutrients, particularly in stands with acute nutritional deficiencies. This is accomplished by means of readily soluble Mg and K fertilizers at application rates of 500 to 1,000 kg-ha−1. In cases of insufficient P supply or for the activation of microbial decomposer chains in organic top soil horizons, P fertilizers are utilized. For ameliorative fertilization, foliar and soil analyses are recommended as a sound basis for fertilizer selection. In many cases, particularly in the States of Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg, Mg containing lime in combination with fast soluble Mg and/or K (P) fertilizers are applied. Between 1984 and 1987, approximately 400,000 ha of “new type” forest damage areas have been limed and/or fertilized in West Germany. As positive as the application of lime and/or fertilizers appear to be, there exists some potential risks and limitations of these practices with regard to restabilization and revitalization of declining forest stands.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Healthy forests are essential for life on earth. Their multiple benefits include sustainable production of wood and other products, soil protection, air and water purification, wildlife habitat, noise control, various types of recreation, but also climate regulation and CO2 storage. Owing to man-made influences, forests have been endangered since a long time. In various parts of the world these adverse impacts are now representing a risk for human life. For example, the still increasing destruction of tropical and subtropical forests leads to detrimental soil erosion problems and great losses of soil fertility including soil C. Furthermore, atmospheric pollution brought about forest declines in Europe, North America and elsewhere. In order to overcome these and related problems a variety of efforts have been established. In commercial forests of the temperate/boreal zones forest management practices including fertilization regimes focusing on sustainably increasing yields have been utilized for several centuries. However, new management strategies are under research and/or have been implemented in these forest ecosystems to mitigate the so called new types of forest damage. As these declines are frequently associated with nutritional disturbances fertilizer applications have proven useful when conducted properly. Agro-forestry is one approach to reduce the further deterioration of tropical/subtropical forests. Also rehabilitation of devastated land ist partly concentrated on afforestation. With the ever increasing demands of a fast growing human population and increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, proper multi-purpose forestry on a permanent or short rotation basis or in the wide realm of agro-forestry is essential for mankind. In many cases adequate forest management will only be possible when soil fertility is restored and/or maintained through fertilization/manuring considering the demand of a specific forest stand/system under specific site conditions. Clearly, also the potential to increase the CO2 storage capacity of forests is often limited by insufficient nutrient availability. However, in general this site specific limitation can be overcome easily by proper nutrient supplementation.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Based on an ecosystematic approach within the comprehensive SANA (Regeneration of the atmosphere above the new federal states) -project the influence of industrial air pollutants (SO2, NOx, alkaline fly ashes) on the vitality of mycorrhizae, mycorrhizal frequency, and on parameters of root growth such as root biomass and necromass and distribution of different root classes in the soil horizons was investigated. The studies were conducted in three comparable Scots pine ecosystems in eastern Germany which were exposed to different deposition loads of air pollutants during the time of the former German Democratic Republic. Site specific differences were obtained for all parameters investigated. The reference plot Neuglobsow (background deposition) revealed the highest number of vital mycorrhizae, highest mycorrhizal frequency, and largest biomass of finest roots in the humus layer. At the impact-sites Roesa and Taura (heavy and moderate deposition) located near Halle/Bitterfeld and Leipzig, the number of vital mycorrhizae was reduced and the life-span of mycorrhizae of reduced vitality was elongated. Finest root biomass and necromass of the humus layer were also lower at these plots as compared to Neuglobsow. At Neuglobsow a higher turnover of mycorrhizae and finest roots of the humus layer is assumed. The reduced growth of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal finest roots at the two pollution impacted sites Roesa and Taura is seen as an adaptation mechanism of the root system to high nutrient inputs.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Keywords: Scots pine ; Pinus sylvestris ; deposition ; element budget ; soil solution ; soil chemistry ; alkaline dust ; pH ; acidification ; sulfur release
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Since 1993 we are studying three Scots pine ecosystems along a deposition gradient in north-eastern Germany (formerly GDR). Dramatic reductions of pollutant emissions are reported for the period since 1989/90. S-deposition is high at the sites Roesa and Taura (25 kg S ha−1yr−1) compared to Neuglobsow. Inputs of basic cations, especially Ca, by alkaline dust immissions decrease in the order Roesa 〉 Taura 〉 Neuglobsow. The soil solution data show high concentrations of Ca and SO4 at Roesa decreasing drastically along the deposition gradient. The elevated pH values reflect the impact of alkaline dust deposition particularly in the organic surface layer at Roesa. The site Taura received less base cation deposition and is marked by the lowest pH values throughout the soil profile combined with increased Al concentrations in the solution of the mineral soil. Thus, the composition of the soil solutions clearly reflects the different deposition regimes of the past. The element budgets show that large amounts of base cations, sulfur, and, at Taura, also aluminum are actually released from the soils that were previously stored.
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