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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-10-17
    Description: Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica is sensitive to changes in its oceanic and atmospheric environment because of its geometrical configuration, and it is known to be in a state of ice dynamical imbalance. Today, it is retreating, which eventually leads to continuous thinning and speedup of the glacier. Fluctuations in the glacier’s surface mass balance affect our ability to observe these dynamics, for example by affecting the penetration depth of the radar altimeter signals within the near-surface snowpack. We have collected an extensive record of ground-based and airborne observations along a 900 km traverse of the Pine Island Glacier as part of the UK NERC iSTAR-D project, to develop an improved understanding of the factors that affect satellite observations. The data set includes ground-penetrating radar, Ku-band phase-sensitive radar, Ku-band ASIRAS airborne radar, snow density measurements based on neutron scattering, and shallow and deep ice cores. We combine these measurements to determine patterns of snow accumulation across the traverse, as well as their variation in time: Reflectors in the uppermost 10s of metres of the glacier are tracked along the traverse in the various radar data sets and – assuming that each reflector stems from the same event – dated according to the ice core chronologies and annual layer counting in the density–depth profiles from neutron scattering. From these data, we then compute the mean accumulation rate along the traverse using each dated layer and their depth. The data allow us to evaluate the impact that fluctuations in surface mass have on the CryoSat-2 signal over the Pine Island Glacier.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The purpose of ISLSCP is to verify the use of satellite data for the estimation of land-surface properties. This is to be done through a series of field experiments using a combination of point measurements on the ground and areal measurements from aircraft overflights. In addition to validating satellite estimates of surface properties, approaches for obtaining areal averages of the radiation, moisture, and heat fluxes from remotely sensed data are to be studied. The procedure for doing this is to combine the surface point measurements of the fluxes with the aircraft areal observations using a surface-energy-balance model. This should make it possible to interpolate between the point estimates of these fluxes and calculate area-averaged quantities. The surface parameters to be estimated from aircraft observations include: surface radiation temperature, albedo, land-cover or vegetation index, and surface soil moisture.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Useful quantitative information about soil properties may be obtained by calibrating energy and moisture balance models with remotely sensed data. A soil physics model solves heat and moisture flux equations in the soil profile and is driven by the surface energy balance. Model generated surface temperature and soil moisture and temperature profiles are then used in a microwave emission model to predict the soil brightness temperature. The model hydraulic parameters are varied until the predicted temperatures agree with the remotely sensed values. This method is used to estimate values for saturated hydraulic conductivity, saturated matrix potential, and a soil texture parameter. The conductivity agreed well with a value measured with an infiltration ring and the other parameters agreed with values in the literature.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The underlying mean and variance properties of surface net radiation, sensible-latent heat fluxes and soil heat flux are studied over the densely instrumented grassland region encompassing FIFE. Flux variability is discussed together with the problem of scaling up to area-averaged fluxes. Results are compared and contrasted for cloudy and clear situations and examined for the influence of surface-induced biophysical controls (burn and grazing treatments) and topographic controls (aspect ratios and slope factors).
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D17; p. 18,599-18,622.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The capabilities of the heat capacity mapping mission (HCMM) satellite are described, together with the numerical model used for data analysis. The HCMM carries the HCM radiometer for remote sensing in the visible and 0.55-1.1 micron wavelength regions, as well as in the 10.5-12.5 micron interval, with the swath being 720 km and each pixel being a square 500 m on a side. The HCMM is intended to aid in hydrological studies of soil moisture, runoff, and evapotranspiration estimates. Data are taken of the albedos and temperatures of vegetation, assuming that all reflection is diffuse. Corrections are made in the algorithm to account for sun angle and the spacecraft distance from the earth. Sample calculations are provided from scans of a coastal plain, mountains, and plateaus of Alaska.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology (ISSN 0733-3021); 22; Jan. 198
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Evaporative fractions at surface flux stations on the Konza Prairie are investigated by means of heat-flux estimation, evaporative fractions, and other remotely sensed parameters. Radiometric surface-temperature measurements are used to calculate sensible heat, and evaporative fraction is characterized by comparing systematic differences and consistencies at 21 stations. The evaporative fractions are related to soil and vegetation data collected concurrently with attention given to specific correlations. Little variation is found in the evaporative fraction during the day for the four periods studied, although the most significant change corresponded with the lowest values of soil moisture, leaf-area indices, and simple ratio. Uncertainties in air/surface temperature differences and in small wind speeds affect the reliability of estimates of the surface fluxes.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Symposium on FIFE - First ISLSCP Field Experiment; Feb 07, 1990 - Feb 09, 1990; Anaheim, CA; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E80-10023 , NASA-CR-162395 , Intern. Symp. on Remote Sensing of Environment; Apr 20, 1978 - Apr 26, 1978; DOT
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E80-10021 , NASA-CR-162393
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: An energy-balance model is used to estimate daily evapotranspiration for 3 days for a barley field and a wheat field near Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany. The model was calibrated using once-daily estimates of surface temperatures, which may be remotely sensed. The evaporation estimates were within the 95% error bounds of independent eddy correlation estimates for the daytime periods for all three days for both sites, but the energy-balance estimates are generally higher; it is unclear which estimate is biassed. Soil moisture in the top 2 cm of soil, which may be remotely sensed, may be used to improve these evaporation estimates under partial ground cover. Sensitivity studies indicate the amount of ground data required is not excessive.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Remote Sensing of Snow and Evapotranspiration; p 149-167
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Manabe (1982) has reviewed numerical simulations of the atmosphere which provided a framework within which an examination of the dynamics of the hydrological cycle could be conducted. It was found that the climate is sensitive to soil moisture variability in space and time. The challenge arises now to improve the observations of soil moisture so as to provide up-dated boundary condition inputs to large scale models including the hydrological cycle. Attention is given to details regarding the significance of understanding soil moisture variations, soil moisture estimation using remote sensing, and energy and moisture balance modeling.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: IAF PAPER 85-03
    Format: text
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