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  • 1
    Keywords: Physical geography. ; Climatology. ; Agriculture Economic aspects. ; Agriculture. ; Soil science. ; Physical Geography. ; Climate Sciences. ; Earth System Sciences. ; Agricultural Economics. ; Agriculture. ; Soil Science.
    Description / Table of Contents: Foreword -- Chapter 1: Background to the natural landscape and the consequences of the ecosystem conversion -- Chapter 2: Socio-economic and institutional drivers and impacts of land use change -- Chapter 3: Potentials and Strategies of adapted land use as basis for ecological and social-economic sustainable development of the rural landscape -- Chapter 4: Change in Regional Development -- Chapter 5: Summary and outlook -- Acknowledgement.
    Abstract: This book focuses on a representative example and one of the world’s largest steppe conversions, and provides a detailed overview of the results of the BMBF-funded research project KULUNDA. As part of the Siberian virgin land policy, the Kulunda steppe was transformed into agricultural land from 1954 to 1965. In the course of the project, a multidisciplinary research team conducted a natural, social-economic and agro-scientific cause-and-effect analysis of (agro-)ecosystem destabilisation, as well as various field trials covering tillage and crop rotation options in their socio-economic context. The ecologically and economically sound findings offer strategies for combining climate smart land utilization, ecosystem restoration and sustainable regional development, and can readily be applied to other virgin land conversion efforts. In addition, the findings on the Eurasian steppes will expand the current conversion literature, which mainly consists of the ‘Dust Bowl’ literature of the North American plains. Given its scope, the book will appeal to scientists, professionals, and students in the environmental, geo- and climate sciences. .
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: XXVI, 522 p. 202 illus., 164 illus. in color. , online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2020.
    ISBN: 9783030159276
    Series Statement: Innovations in Landscape Research,
    DDC: 910.02
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Call number: AWI Bio-24-95742
    Description / Table of Contents: The arctic is warming 2 – 4 times faster than the global average, resulting in a strong feedback on northern ecosystems such as boreal forests, which cover a vast area of the high northern latitudes. With ongoing global warming, the treeline subsequently migrates northwards into tundra areas. The consequences of turning ecosystems are complex: on the one hand, boreal forests are storing large amounts of global terrestrial carbon and act as a carbon sink, dragging carbon dioxide out of the global carbon cycle, suggesting an enhanced carbon uptake with increased tree cover. On the other hand, with the establishment of trees, the albedo effect of tundra decreases, leading to enhanced soil warming. Meanwhile, permafrost thaws, releasing large amounts of previously stored carbon into the atmosphere. So far, mainly vegetation dynamics have been assessed when studying the impact of warming onto ecosystems. Most land plants are living in close symbiosis with bacterial and fungal communities, sustaining their growth in nutrient poor habitats. However, the impact of climate change on these subsoil communities alongside changing vegetation cover remains poorly understood. Therefore, a better understanding of soil community dynamics on multi millennial timescales is inevitable when addressing the development of entire ecosystems. Unravelling long-term cross-kingdom dependencies between plant, fungi, and bacteria is not only a milestone for the assessment of warming on boreal ecosystems. On top, it also is the basis for agriculture strategies to sustain society with sufficient food in a future warming world. The first objective of this thesis was to assess ancient DNA as a proxy for reconstructing the soil microbiome (Manuscripts I, II, III, IV). Research findings across these projects enable a comprehensive new insight into the relationships of soil microorganisms to the surrounding vegetation. First, this was achieved by establishing (Manuscript I) and applying (Manuscript II) a primer pair for the selective amplification of ancient fungal DNA from lake sediment samples with the metabarcoding approach. To assess fungal and plant co-variation, the selected primer combination (ITS67, 5.8S) amplifying the ITS1 region was applied on samples from five boreal and arctic lakes. The obtained data showed that the establishment of fungal communities is impacted by warming as the functional ecological groups are shifting. Yeast and saprotroph dominance during the Late Glacial declined with warming, while the abundance of mycorrhizae and parasites increased with warming. The overall species richness was also alternating. The results were compared to shotgun sequencing data reconstructing fungi and bacteria (Manuscripts III, IV), yielding overall comparable results to the metabarcoding approach. Nonetheless, the comparison also pointed out a bias in the metabarcoding, potentially due to varying ITS lengths or copy numbers per genome. The second objective was to trace fungus-plant interaction changes over time (Manuscripts II, III). To address this, metabarcoding targeting the ITS1 region for fungi and the chloroplast P6 loop for plants for the selective DNA amplification was applied (Manuscript II). Further, shotgun sequencing data was compared to the metabarcoding results (Manuscript III). Overall, the results between the metabarcoding and the shotgun approaches were comparable, though a bias in the metabarcoding was assumed. We demonstrated that fungal shifts were coinciding with changes in the vegetation. Yeast and lichen were mainly dominant during the Late Glacial with tundra vegetation, while warming in the Holocene lead to the expansion of boreal forests with increasing mycorrhizae and parasite abundance. Aside, we highlighted that Pinaceae establishment is dependent on mycorrhizal fungi such as Suillineae, Inocybaceae, or Hyaloscypha species also on long-term scales. The third objective of the thesis was to assess soil community development on a temporal gradient (Manuscripts III, IV). Shotgun sequencing was applied on sediment samples from the northern Siberian lake Lama and the soil microbial community dynamics compared to ecosystem turnover. Alongside, podzolization processes from basaltic bedrock were recovered (Manuscript III). Additionally, the recovered soil microbiome was compared to shotgun data from granite and sandstone catchments (Manuscript IV, Appendix). We assessed if the establishment of the soil microbiome is dependent on the plant taxon and as such comparable between multiple geographic locations or if the community establishment is driven by abiotic soil properties and as such the bedrock area. We showed that the development of soil communities is to a great extent driven by the vegetation changes and temperature variation, while time only plays a minor role. The analyses showed general ecological similarities especially between the granite and basalt locations, while the microbiome on species-level was rather site-specific. A greater number of correlated soil taxa was detected for deep-rooting boreal taxa in comparison to grasses with shallower roots. Additionally, differences between herbaceous taxa of the late Glacial compared to taxa of the Holocene were revealed. With this thesis, I demonstrate the necessity to investigate subsoil community dynamics on millennial time scales as it enables further understanding of long-term ecosystem as well as soil development processes and such plant establishment. Further, I trace long-term processes leading to podzolization which supports the development of applied carbon capture strategies under future global warming.
    Type of Medium: Dissertations
    Pages: xii, 198 Seiten , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    Language: English
    Note: Dissertation, Universität Potsdam, 2024 , Table of Contents Summary Deutsche Zusammenfassung 1 Introduction 1.1 Arctic ecosystems under global warming 1.2 The plant-associated microbiome 1.3 Drivers of soil development 1.4 Ancient DNA to unravel past ecosystems 1.4.1 Lake sediments as archives of past community changes 1.4.2 Metabarcoding for targeting specific communities 1.4.3 Shotgun sequencing for broader overview 1.5 Thesis objective 1.6 Thesis outline and author contributions 2 Manuscript I 2.1 Abstract 2.2 Introduction 2.3 Materials and Methods 2.3.1 Primer design and evaluation In silico analyses Evaluation of lake sediment core DNA for analyses of fungal paleoecology 2.4 Results Primer design and evaluation Evaluation of lake sediment core DNA for fungal paleoecology 2.4.1 Taxonomic resolution across the cores 2.4.2 Comprehensiveness: Rarefaction and accumulation curves 2.4.3 Amplicon length and GC content to assess bias through degradation 2.4.4 General taxonomic composition of fungi in Siberian lake sediment cores Diversity of fungal paleocommunities from lake CH12 2.5 Discussion 2.5.1 Preservation biases and potential contamination 2.5.2 Characteristics of the optimized sedaDNA ITS1 metabarcoding assay 2.5.3 Potential of lake sediment fungal DNA for paleoecology 2.6 Author contributions 2.7 Acknowledgements 2.8 Conflict of interest 2.9 References 3 Manuscript II 3.1 Abstract 3.2 Introduction 3.3 Geographic setting and study sites 3.4 Materials and Methods 3.4.1 Sampling 3.4.2 DNA extraction and amplification 3.4.3 Bioinformatic analysis 3.4.4 Assessment of negative controls and contamination 3.4.5 Statistical analysis and visualization 3.5 Results 3.5.1 Fungi: sedaDNA sequencing results and overall patterns of alpha diversity and taxonomic composition 3.5.2 Vegetation: sedaDNA sequencing results and overall patterns of alpha diversity and taxonomic composition 3.5.3 Site-specific plant-fungus covariation 3.5.3.1 Fungus and plant covariation in arctic Siberia from MIS3 to the Holocene 3.5.3.2 Quantitative relationships between fungi and plant richness and composition 3.6 Discussion 3.6.1 Fungus and plant diversity along a spatiotemporal gradient in Siberia 3.6.2 Changes in ecosystem functioning over a spatiotemporal gradient 3.6.3 Implications of our results for ecosystem functioning and future research avenues 3.7 Conclusions Funding Availability of data and material Author contribution Declaration of competing interest Acknowledgements 3.8 References 4 Manuscript III 4.1 Abstract 4.2 Introduction 4.3 Results and Discussion 4.3.1 Compositional changes of plants, fungi, and bacteria in ancient metagenomic datasets 4.3.2 Long-term soil development: a trajectory or environmentally driven processes? 4.3.3 Bioweathering supported by lichens and mycorrhiza 4.3.4 Turnover in carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur cycling 4.3.5 Tracing podzolization 4.4 Implications and conclusions 4.5 Material and methods 4.5.1 Geographical setting and study site 4.5.2 X-ray fluorescence scanning of the sediment core 4.5.3 Core sub-sampling 4.5.4 DNA extraction 4.5.5 Single stranded DNA library build 4.5.6 Bioinformatic pipeline for the analysis of the sequencing results 4.5.7 Data analysis 4.5.8 Analysis of the ancient patterns 4.5.9 Statistical analysis of the dataset Acknowledgements 4.6 References Declarations 5 Discussion and synthesis 5.1 Long-term rhizosphere establishment in tundra and taiga areas 5.1.1 SedaDNA as a proxy for soil microbiome 5.1.1.1 Fungal DNA metabarcoding 5.1.1.2 Targeting soil communities with shotgun sequencing 5.1.1.3 Comparison between metabarcoding and shotgun sequencing for the soil microbiome 5.1.2 Fungi-vegetation interaction changes over time 5.1.3 Soil development on a temporal gradient 5.2 Conclusion and future perspectives 6 References 7 Appendix 7.1 Appendix to manuscript I 7.2 Appendix to manuscript II 7.3 Appendix to manuscript III 7.4 Manuscript IV 7.4.1 Abstract 7.4.2 Introduction 7.4.3 Geographical setting and study sites 7.4.4 Material & Methods 7.4.4.1 Sub-sampling of the sediment cores 7.4.4.2 DNA extraction 7.4.4.3 Single stranded DNA library built 7.4.4.4 Bioinformatic pipeline for the analysis of the sequencing data 7.4.4.5 Data analysis 7.4.4.6 Statistical analysis of the datasets 7.4.5 Results 7.4.5.1 Compositional changes of representative plant taxa alongside dynamics in fungal ecologies and bacterial element cycling in ancient metagenomic datasets 7.4.5.2 Impact of abiotic and biotic drivers on soil establishment across geographical locations 7.4.5.3 Relative positive correlations of functional soil taxa with plants across the locations 7.4.5.4 Assessment of the plant taxon-specific microbiome across the locations 7.4.6 Discussion 7.4.6.1 Site-specific soil development 7.4.6.2 Differences in the bedrock 7.4.6.3 Correlation between the lake biota 7.4.6.3.1 General Trends in positively correlated rhizosphere taxa 7.4.6.3.2 Plant taxa specific microbiome 7.4.7 Implications and future directions 7.4.8 References 7.4.9 Supplement to manuscript IV Acknowledgements Eidesstattliche Erklärung Damage pattern analysis – Auflagen Doktorarbeit Summary Main References
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  • 3
    Keywords: Bodenkunde ; soil ; Boden ; pedology ; Pedologie ; soil science ; Bodenwissenschaft
    Description / Table of Contents: 1 Boden und Böden --- Einleitung --- 1.2 Der Umgang mit Böden --- Veränderungen von Böden durch menschliche Eingriffe --- Prähistorischer Umgang mit den Böden --- Die dunklen Erden Amazoniens --- Der Umgang mit Böden im vormodernen China --- Intensivierte Bodennutzung in der Neuzeit --- Der Umgang mit Böden im Ökologischen Landbau --- 1.3 Die Geschichte der Bodenkunde --- Die Wurzeln der Bodenkunde --- Die geobiowissenschaftliche/forstliche Tradition --- Die agrarwissenschaftliche Tradition --- Die chemische Tradition --- Die kulturtechnische Tradition --- 2 Böden als Naturkörper --- Einleitung --- Gliederung der Bodenlebewesen --- 2.1 Mineralkörper von Böden --- Silicate --- Gesteinsbildende Oxide --- Carbonate, Sulfate, Chloride, Phosphate --- Gesteine als Ausgangsmaterial der Bodenentwicklung --- Gesteinsgemische und Substratabfolgen --- Saprolite --- Anthropogene Gesteine --- Chemische Verwitterungsprozesse --- Tonminerale --- Carbonate, Gips und lösliche Salze --- Schwerminerale --- Tonminerale Methodik --- Pedogene Oxide --- Carbonate und Salze --- Textur der mineralischen Substanz --- 2.2 Humuskörper von Böden --- Humusformen und -typen --- Waldstreu --- Streu landwirtschaftlicher Nutzflächen --- Modellsysteme für Huminstoffe --- Alter der Humusstoffe --- Nährstoffgehalte und -nachlieferung --- 2.4 Bodenlebewesen --- Bodenfauna --- Biodenbiomasse --- Einfluss der Standort- und Bodeneigenschaften auf die Bodenfauna --- Einfluss des Bodenlebens auf Streuabbau und Aggregatbildung --- Bodenenzyme --- 2.5 Potenziale in Böden --- Bodenreaktion --- 2.6 Gefüge und Porengrößenverteilung --- Körnung und Konsistenz --- Mineralischer Feinboden --- Mineralischer Grobboden --- Organische Bodenpartikel --- Gefüge --- Morphologie --- Kräfte und Spannungen in Böden --- Wasserbindung und Porengrößenverteilung --- Wasserbewegung und Wasserleitfähigkeit des Bodens --- Thermisches Verhalten der Böden --- Bodenmechanik --- Makroskopische mechanische Verfahren --- Rheologie --- 2.7 Flüsse in Böden --- Makroporen und präferenzielle Sickerung --- Transportformen --- Wärmefluss und Wärmehaushalt --- Physikochemische Aspekte des Stofftransports in Böden --- Gastransport in Böden --- Transport gelöster Stoffe im Boden --- 3 Böden als Teile von Landschaften --- Einleitung --- 3.2 Klassifikation von Böden --- Geschichte und Prinzipien der Bodenklassifikation --- Systematik der Böden Deutschlands --- Die Österreichische Bodensystematik 2000 (OBS 2000) --- Bezugsgrundlage der Boden-Ressourcen der Erde (WRB) --- Bezugsgrundlage der Boden-Ressourcen der Erde (WRB), 2. Auflage 2006, 1. Update 2007 --- FAO/Unesco, Bodenkarte der Welt --- Systematik der bodenbildenden Substrate --- 3.3 Wichtige Bodeneinheiten --- Podsole --- Terrae calcis --- Reduktosole --- Watten und Strände – Salzwiesen und Mangrovenwälder --- Subhydrische Böden --- Moore --- 3.4 Böden als Landschaftssegmente --- Grundsätze der Bodenvergesellschaftung --- Bodentragende Landschaftsformen --- Klassifikation von Bodengesellschaften --- Watten und Marschen Nordwestdeutschlands --- Norddeutsche Jungmoränenlandschaften --- Norddeutsche Altmoränenlandschaften --- Nord- und mitteldeutsche Lössbörden und Sandlössgebiete --- Böden städtisch-industrieller Verdichtungsräume --- Bodenlandschaften kühlhumider Zonen (Boreale Wälder) --- Bodengeographie der Waldsteppen und Steppen --- Bodenlandschaften subtropischer mediterraner Zonen --- Bodengeografie der wechselfeuchten Tropen am Beispiel Indiens --- 3.5 Kartierungstechnik --- Kartierungstechnik --- 3.6 Bodenkundliche Kartenwerke --- Bodenkundliche Kartenwerke --- 4 Funktionen von Böden --- Einleitung --- 4.2 Standortfunktionen von Böden --- Böden als Waldstandorte --- Böden als Grünlandstandorte --- Deutsche Weinbaustandorte --- Böden als Obstbaustandorte --- Böden als Baugrund und Baustoff --- Die amtliche Bodenschätzung in Deutschland --- 4.4 Böden als Bestandteil des Landschaftshaushaltes --- Boden und Landschaftswasserhaushalt --- Landschaftsstoffhaushalt --- 4.5 Böden als landschafts- und kulturgeschichtliche Urkunden --- Böden als landschafts- und kulturgeschichtliche Urkunden --- Böden und Bodenmerkmale unterschiedlichen Alters --- Datierungsmethoden --- Norddeutsches Vereisungsgebiet --- Süddeutsches Vereisungsgebiet --- Lößgebiete Süddeutschlands --- Paläoböden in periglazialen Lagen der Mittelgebirge --- 5 Bodenkultivierung, Bodenmelioration --- Einleitung --- 5.1 Grundlagen der Bodenkultivierung und Bodenmelioration --- Grundlagen der Bodenkultivierung und Bodenmelioration --- 5.2 Meliorationsverfahren --- Meliorationsverfahren --- 5.3 Kultivierungsverfahren --- Marschkultur --- Einleitung --- Moorkulturen --- Plaggen --- Tiefenbearbeitung --- Bewässerung --- 6 Anthropogene Bodenveränderungen und -belastungen --- Einleitung --- 6.1 Bodenüberformung und -versiegelung --- Bodenüberformung und -versiegelung --- 6.2 Anthropogene Gefügeänderung --- Bewirtschaftungssysteme und ihre Auswirkungen auf das Bodengefüge --- Anthropogene Gefügeänderungen --- Forstliche Bodenbewirtschaftung --- Melioration von tiefreichend schadverdichteten Neu- und Altlandstandorten --- 6.3 Abtrag von Böden --- Physikalische Ursachen der Wassererosion --- Erosionsformen --- Winderosion --- Abtrag von Böden --- Feststofftransport in Fließgewässern --- Quantifizierung des Bodenabtrags anhand von Modellen --- 6.4 Düngung von Böden --- Düngung von Böden --- 6.5 Kontamination von Böden --- Organische Pflanzenschutzmittel --- Antibiotika --- Radionuklide 7 Bodenschutz --- Einleitung --- 7.1 Gesetzliche Grundlagen --- Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz (Wortlaut) --- Bundes-Bodenschutz- und Altlastenverordnung (Wortlaut) --- Bodenschutzrecht --- 7.2 Bodenschutz in der Landwirtschaft --- Einleitung --- Gesetzliche Instrumente --- Ökonomische Instrumente --- 7.3 Bodenschutzrelevante Planungen --- Planung und Umsetzung im urbanindustriellen und suburbanen Raum --- 7.4 Schutz vor mechanischer Belastung --- Schutz vor mechanischer Belastung --- 7.5 Schutz vor Abtrag und Überflutung --- Schutz vor Abtrag und Überflutung --- 7.6 Schutz vor stofflichen Belastungen --- Schutz landwirtschaftlicher Böden vor Überdüngung --- Schutz vor Säuren --- Schutz vor Salzen und Alkalinität --- Schutz vor Belastung mit Pflanzenschutzmitteln --- Schutz vor Organika --- Schutz vor Kontamination durch Deponien --- Schutz vor Kontamination bei Reststoffverwertung --- 7.7 Erziehung zum Bodenschutz --- Erziehung zum Bodenschutz --- 8 Bodensicherung, -sanierung und -restaurierung --- Einleitung --- 8.1 Rechtsgrundlagen der Bodensanierung --- Rechtsgrundlagen der Bodensanierung --- 8.3 Rekultivierung unterschiedlicher Böden und Substrate --- Rekultivierung unterschiedlicher Böden und Substrate --- 8.4 Rekultivierung fremdgenutzter Standorte --- Rekultivierung aufgegebener Industrie-, Gewerbe und Verkehrsflächen --- 8.5 Rekultivierung und Renaturierung von Abgrabungsflächen --- Rekultivierung und Renaturierung von Abgrabungsflächen --- 8.6 Sanierungsbedürftigkeit und Schutzwürdigkeit von Böden --- Sanierungsbedürftigkeit und Schutzwürdigkeit von Böden
    ISBN: 9783527678495
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2023-11-15
    Description: Changes in land use and climate are the main drivers of change in soil organic matter contents. We investigated the impact of the largest policy-induced land conversion to arable land, the Virgin Lands Campaign (VLC), from 1954 to 1963, of the massive cropland abandonment after 1990 and of climate change on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in steppes of Russia and Kazakhstan. We simulated carbon budgets from the pre-VLC period (1900) until 2100 using a dynamic vegetation model to assess the impacts of observed land-use change as well as future climate and land-use change scenarios. The simulations suggest for the entire VLC region (266 million hectares) that the historic cropland expansion resulted in emissions of 1.6⋅ 1015 g (= 1.6 Pg) carbon between 1950 and 1965 compared to 0.6 Pg in a scenario without the expansion. From 1990 to 2100, climate change alone is projected to cause emissions of about 1.8 (± 1.1) Pg carbon. Hypothetical recultivation of the cropland that has been abandoned after the fall of the Soviet Union until 2050 may cause emissions of 3.5 (± 0.9) Pg carbon until 2100, whereas the abandonment of all cropland until 2050 would lead to sequestration of 1.8 (± 1.2) Pg carbon. For the climate scenarios based on SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) emission pathways, SOC declined only moderately for constant land use but substantially with further cropland expansion. The variation of SOC in response to the climate scenarios was smaller than that in response to the land-use scenarios. This suggests that the effects of land-use change on SOC dynamics may become as relevant as those of future climate change in the Eurasian steppes.
    Description: BMBF
    Description: BMBF
    Description: ERA.net
    Description: danish ERC program
    Description: Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences https://doi.org/10.13039/501100006422
    Description: BMBF
    Description: Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK) e.V. (3500)
    Keywords: ddc:631.4 ; Carbon emissions ; Soil carbon stocks ; Model simulations ; Steppe region ; Cropland expansion
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2023-06-19
    Description: Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Oa horizons has been proposed to be an important contributor for subsoil organic carbon stocks. We investigated the fate of DOC by directly injecting a DOC solution from 13C labelled litter into three soil depths at beech forest sites. Fate of injected DOC was quantified with deep drilling soil cores down to 2 m depth, 3 and 17 months after the injection. 27 ± 26% of the injected DOC was retained after 3 months and 17 ± 22% after 17 months. Retained DOC was to 70% found in the first 10 cm below the injection depth and on average higher in the topsoil than in the subsoil. After 17 months DOC in the topsoil was largely lost (− 19%) while DOC in the subsoil did not change much (− 4.4%). Data indicated a high stabilisation of injected DOC in the subsoils with no differences between the sites. Potential mineralisation as revealed by incubation experiments however, was not different between DOC injected in topsoil or subsoils underlining the importance of environmental factors in the subsoil for DOC stabilisation compared to topsoil. We conclude that stability of DOC in subsoil is primary driven by its spatial inaccessibility for microorganisms after matrix flow while site specific properties did not significantly affect stabilisation. Instead, a more fine-textured site promotes the vertical transport of DOC due to a higher abundance of preferential flow paths.
    Description: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
    Keywords: ddc:550.78 ; Forest subsoils ; Cascade model ; Incubation experiment ; 13C ; Field experiment
    Language: English
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: The Yenisei river passes every type of permafrost regime, from south to north, being characterized by increasing continuity of the permafrost and by decreasing thickness of the active layer. We used that situation to test the hypothesis that amounts and properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in small streams draining forested catchments respond to different permafrost regimes. Water samples were taken from eight tributaries along the Yenisei between 67°30′N and 65°49′N latitude. The samples were analysed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) and DOM was characterized by its chemical composition (XAD-8 fractionation, sugars, lignin phenols, amino acids, protein, UV and fluorescence spectroscopy), and its biodegradability. Most properties of the tributary waters varied depending on latitude. The higher the latitude, the higher were DOC, DON and the proportion of the hydrophobic fraction of DOC. The contribution of hexoses and pentoses to DOC were higher in southern tributaries; on the other hand, phenolic compounds were more abundant in northern tributaries. Mineralizable DOC ranged between 4% and 28% of total DOC. DOM in northern tributaries was significantly (P〈0.05) less biodegradable than that in southern tributaries reflecting the differences in the chemical properties of DOM. Our results suggest that the differences in DOM properties are mainly attributed to differences of permafrost regime, affecting depth of active layer, soil organic matter accumulation and vegetation. Soil organic matter and vegetation determine the amount and composition of DOM produced in the catchments while the depth of the active layer likely controls the quantity and quality of DOM exported to streams. Sorptive interactions of DOM with the soil mineral phase typically increase with depth. The results imply that a northern shift of discontinuous permafrost likely will change in the long term the input of DOM into the Yenisei and thus probably into the Kara Sea.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract For a one year period intact Spodosol soil columns were percolated weekly with H2Odeion, 1.58 mmol H2SO4 L−1, and 0.79 mmol H2SO4 L−1+0.64 mmol HNO3 L−1, respectively. Decomposition rates, soil organic carbon (OC) solubilization, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions, and Cr-, Cu-, and Cd-binding by dissolved hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids were studied. Acid treatment reduced significantly OC respiration as well as OC solubilization in the humic layers. The reduced OC solubility at acid addition was more pronounced for the less polar hydrophobic compounds, resulting in a decrease of the hydrophobic acids (from ca. 65 to 40–45% of DOC), and in an increase of the hydrophilic acids (from ca. 25 to 40–45% of DOC). For B horizon leachates, DOC increased at acid treatment. Generally, hydrophobic acids were retained preferentially in the B horizon. Also in the B horizon output there was an increase of the hydrophilic acids as acidity increased (from ca. 40 to 50% of DOC). Differences between the two acid treatments were negligible. The degree of metal-organic complexes decreased in the order Cr 〉Cu 〉Cd, from A to B horizon leachates, and with increasing acidity. Hydrophilic acids were found to be the dominating ligands in complexing Cr and Cu. Actual Cr- and Cu-binding by hydrophilic acids exceeded that by hydrophobic acids 2–8 times. As the hydrophilic acids represented the most mobile DOC components in the soil columns, in particular with increasing acidity, significant amounts of Cr and Cu in the B horizon leachates were organically complexed, although a great proportion of the hydrophobic acids was retained in the B horizon.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Soil Science Society of America journal 63 (1999), S. 1188-1198 
    ISSN: 1435-0661
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: −1 soil and 37–79 mg muramic acid kg−1 soil) were larger by factors of 54 to 745 and 26 to 82, respectively. At three sites, the ratios of glucosamine to muramic acid in NT soils (32.0, 30.0, 42.2) significantly exceeded those in the respective CT soils (18.8, 22.1, 23.0) because of a higher enrichment of glucosamine. This coincided with higher values for fungal biomass, particulate organic matter carbon (POM-C), mean weight diameter of water-stable aggregates (MWD), and total organic carbon (TOC). Analysis of aggregate-size classes showed that the additional glucosamine accumulated in 〉53-mm aggregates but not in smaller particles. The enrichment of SOM in fungal-derived glucosamine suggests that the accrual of hyphal cell-wall residues is an important process in the three NT agroecosystems which leads to higher SOM storage in surface soil concurrent with an increase in aggregate stability. The other soils, having a lower clay plus silt content, exhibited no significant differences in POM-C, MWD, and total amino sugars between NT and CT management systems. We suggest that at lower clay plus silt contents the beneficial potential for NT to sequester microbial-derived SOM is lower because of limited physical stabilization.
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  • 9
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