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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Host location ; plant volatiles ; aphid feeding ; wind tunnel ; Acyrthosiphon pisum ; Aphis fabae ; air entrainment ; tritrophic interactions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In-flight orientation of the braconid Aphidius ervi in response to volatiles released from broad bean plants infested by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, was studied in a no-choice wind-tunnel bioassay. The role of aphid infestation level and duration, systemic production of volatiles by “insect-free” parts of the plant, and the specificity of aphid-induced volatiles on the flight behavior of the foraging female parasitoids were investigated. The upper insect-free part of a three-leaved broad bean plant, which was basally infested by a population of 40 A. pisum, released synomones detectable by A. ervi females after at least 48–72 hr of infestation, resulting in both significant increases in oriented flights and landings on the source compared with uninfested control plants. This suggests that volatiles involved in host-location by A. ervi are systemically released by broad bean plants either in response to circulation of aphid saliva, circulation of saliva-induced bioactive elicitors, or circulation of the synomones themselves. Air entrainment extracts of volatiles collected from a broad bean plant infested by the nonhost Aphis fabae or an uninfested broad bean plant elicited few oriented flights and landing responses by female parasitoids. These extracts were significantly less attractive than extracts collected from a broad bean plant infested by the host A. pisum, indicating the specificity of synomones elicited by different aphid species on the same plant species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-02-24
    Description: Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), commonly known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), is a worldwide serious economic threat to the production of berries and stone fruits. The chemical control widely used against this pest is often not able to preventing yield losses because wild flora offers an abundance of fruits to D. suzukii where the pest is able to reproduce and from where it recolonizes neighbouring cultivated fields. Alternatively, within Integrated Pest Management protocols for D. suzukii, biological control could play a key role by reducing its populations particularly in non-cultivated habitats, thus increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side negative effects of other management strategies. Because of the scarcity and of the low efficiency of autochthonous parasitoids in the new invaded territories, in the last few years, a number of surveys started in the native area of D. suzukii to find parasitoid species to be evaluated in quarantine structures and eventually released in the field, following a classical biological control approach. This paper reports the results of these surveys carried out in South Korea and for the first time in China. Among the parasitoids collected, those belonging to the genus Asobara Foerster resulted dominant both by number and species diversity. By combining morphological characters and the mitochondrial COI gene as a molecular marker, we identified seven species of Asobara, of which two associated with D. suzukii, namely A. japonica and A leveri, and five new to science, namely Asobara brevicauda, A. elongata, A mesocauda, A unicolorata, A. triangulata. Our findings offer new opportunity to find effective parasitoids to be introduced in classical biological control programmes in the territories recently invaded by D. suzukii.
    Keywords: Drosophila suzukii ; Spotted Wing Drosophila ; South Korea ; China
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-17
    Description: Garonna AP, Foscari A, Russo E, Jesu G, Somma S, Cascone P, Guerrieri E THE SPREAD OF THE NON-NATIVE PINE TORTOISE SCALE TOUMEYELLA PARVICORNIS (HEMIPTERA: COCCIDAE) IN EUROPE: A MAJOR THREAT TO PINUS PINEA IN SOUTHERN ITALY Abstract : Invasive pests are considered a major threat to biodiversity, conservation and agriculture. The Italian peninsula is a major site of intensive commercial exchange and transport of plants and goods, being consequently one of the European countries most invaded by alien insects. Hemiptera Coccomorpha are the largest group of non-native species recorded in Europe. For example, in the last 70 years more than 50 scale insect species have been accidentally introduced into Italy, 50% of which are now well established. This study was conducted to investigate the biology and the damage of the non-native pine tortoise scale Toumeyella parvicornis Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccidae) accidentally introduced a few years ago into southern Italy. T. parvicornis is multivoltine in the invaded territories, being able to complete at least three generations per year, overwintering in the adult female stage. Oviposition periods during 2015-2017 surveys occurred from late April to end of May, from July to first half of August, and from mid-September to November. Fecundity was positively correlated to body size of gravid females and varied among the generations. Investigations on natural control by autochthonous species showed a seasonal activity of Metaphycus flavus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitizing mainly immature male individuals. The morpho-molecular approach confirms the hypothesis of an ongoing shift of parasitoid populations from other indigenous soft scales to the invasive one. Unfortunately, the low level of natural control was ineffective in hampering the spread of T. parvicornis, and preventing the dieback of local pine species, Pinus pinea, as observed in all invaded areas. Keywords : Invasive Pest, Europe, Toumeyella parvicornis, Life History, Pinus pinea, Natural Control iForest 11 (5): 628-634 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2864-011 http://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2864-011
    Electronic ISSN: 1971-7458
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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