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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: We present an analysis of thermal infrared spectra acquired in limb viewing geometry by Cassini/CIRS in February 2010. We retrieve vertical profiles of Saturn's stratospheric temperature from 20 hPa to 10 (exp -2) hPa, at 9 latitudes between 20 deg N and 20 deg S. Using the gradient thermal wind equation, we derive a map of the zonal wind field. Both the temperature and the zonal wind vertical profiles exhibit an oscillation in the equatorial region. These results are compared to the temperature and zonal wind maps obtained from 2005-2006 CIRS limb data, when this oscillation was first reported. In both epochs, strong temperature anomalies at the equator (up to 20K) are consistent with adiabatic heating (cooling) due to a sinking (rising) motion at a speed of 0.1 - 0.2 mm/s. Finally, we show that the altitude of the maximum eastward wind has moved downwards by 1.3 scale heights in 4.2 years, hence with a 'phase' speed of approximately 0.5 mm/s. This rate is consistent with the estimated period of 14.7 years for the equatorial oscillation, and requires a local zonal acceleration of 1.1 x 10(exp -6) m.s(exp -2) at the 2.5 hPa pressure level. This downward propagation of the oscillation is consistent with it being driven by absorption of upwardly propagating waves.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC.JA.4360.2011
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Remote sensing observations meet some limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements is illustratedby the exploration of Jupiter, where key measurements such as the determination of the noble gases abundances and the precise measurement of the helium mixing ratio have only been made available through in situ measurements by the Galileo probe. This paper describes the main scienti-c goals to be addressed by the future in situ exploration of Saturn placing the Galileo probe exploration of Jupiter in a broader context and before the future probe exploration of the more remote ice giants. In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere addresses two broad themes that are discussedthroughout this paper : rst, the formation history of our solar system and second, the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. In this context, we detail the reasons why measurements of Saturn's bulk elemental and isotopiccomposition would place important constraints on the volatile reservoirs in the protosolar nebula. We also show that the in situ measurement of CO (or any other disequilibrium species that is depleted by reaction with water) in Saturn's upper troposphere may help constraining its bulk OH ratio. We compare predictions of Jupiter and Saturn's bulk compositions from different formation scenarios, and highlight the key measurements required to distinguish competing theories to shed light on giant planet formation as a common process in planetary systems with potential applications to mostextrasolar systems. In situ measurements of Saturn's stratospheric and tropospheric dynamics, chemistry and cloud-forming processes will provide access to phenomena unreachable to remote sensing studies. Dierent mission architectures are envisaged, which would benet from strong international collaborations, all based on an entry probe that would descend through Saturn's stratosphere and troposphere under parachute down to a minimum of 10 bars of atmospheric pressure. We rally discuss the science payload required on a Saturn probe to match the measurement requirements.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN19065 , Planetary and Space Sciences Journal; 104; A; 29-47
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Remote sensing observations meet some limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements is illustrated by the exploration of Jupiter, where key measurements such as the determination of the noble gases abundances and the precise measurement of the helium mixing ratio have only been made available through in situ measurements by the Galileo probe. This paper describes the main scientific goals to be addressed by the future in situ exploration of Saturn placing the Galileo probe exploration of Jupiter in a broader context and before the future probe exploration of the more remote ice giants. In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere addresses two broad themes that are discussed throughout this paper: first, the formation history of our solar system and second, the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. In this context, we detail the reasons why measurements of Saturn's bulk elemental and isotopic composition would place important constraints on the volatile reservoirs in the protosolar nebula. We also show that the in situ measurement of CO (or any other disequilibrium species that is depleted by reaction with water) in Saturn's upper troposphere may help constraining its bulk O/H ratio. We compare predictions of Jupiter and Saturn's bulk compositions from different formation scenarios, and highlight the key measurements required to distinguish competing theories to shed light on giant planet formation as a common process in planetary systems with potential applications to most extrasolar systems. In situ measurements of Saturn's stratospheric and tropospheric dynamics, chemistry and cloud-forming processes will provide access to phenomena unreachable to remote sensing studies. Different mission architectures are envisaged, which would benefit from strong international collaborations, all based on an entry probe that would descend through Saturn's stratosphere and troposphere under parachute down to a minimum of 10 bar of atmospheric pressure. We finally discuss the science payload required on a Saturn probe to match the measurement requirements.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN21252 , Planetary and Space Science (ISSN 0032-0633); 104; 29-47
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Equatorial oscillations in the zonal-mean temperatures and zonal winds have been well documented in Earth's middle atmosphere. A growing body of evidence from ground-based and Cassini spacecraft observations indicates that such phenomena also occur in the stratospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Earth-based midinfrared measurements spanning several decades have established that the equatorial stratospheric temperatures on Jupiter vary with a cycle of 4-5 years and on Saturn with a cycle of approximately 15 years. Spectra obtained by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) during the Cassini swingby at the end of 2000, with much better vertical resolution than the ground-based data, indicated a series of vertically stacked warm and cold anomalics at Jupiter's equator; a similar structurc was seen at Saturn's equator in CIRS limb measurements made in 2005, in the early phase of Cassini's orbital tour. The thermal wind equation implied similar patterns of mean zonal winds increasing and decreasing with altitude. On Saturn the peak-to-pcak amplitude of this variation was nearly 200 meters per second. The alternating vertical pattern of wanner and colder cquatorial tcmperatures and easterly and westerly tendencies of the zonal winds is seen in Earth's equatorial oscillations, where the pattern descends with time, The Cassini Jupiter and early Saturn observations were snapshots within a limited time interval, and they did not show the temporal evolution of the spatial patterns. However, more recent Saturn observations by CIRS (2010) and Cassini radio-occultation soundings (2009-2010) have provided an opportunity to follow the change of the temperature-zonal wind pattern, and they suggest there is descent, at a rate of roughly one scale height over four years. On Earth, the observed descent in the zonal-mean structure is associated with the absorption of a combination of vertically propagating waves with easlerly and westerly phase velocities. The peak-to-peak zonal wind amplitude in the oscillation pattern and the rate of descent constrain the absorbed wave flux of zonal momentum. On Saturn this is approximately 0.05 square meters per square seconds, which is comparable to if not greater than that associated with the terrestrial oscillations. We discuss possible candidates for the absorbed waves on Saturn. On Earth the wave forcing of the equatorial oscillation generales secondary circulations that can affcct the temperature and wind structure at latitudes well away from the equator, and we discuss possible evidence of that on Saturn.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC.ABS.4446.2011 , AOGS2011 Asia Oceania Geosciences Society; 8-12 Aug. 2011; Taipei; Taiwan, Province of China
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Ground-based measurements and Cassini data from CIRS thermal-infrared spectra and radio-occultation soundings have characterized the spatial structure and temporal behavior of a 15-year equatorial oscillation in Saturn's stratosphere. The equatorial region displays a vertical pattern of alternating warm and cold anomalies and, concomitantly, easterly and westerly winds relative to the cloud-top winds, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 200 m/s. Comparison of the Cassini data over a four-year period has established that the pattern of mean zonal winds and temperatures descends at a rate of roughly I scale height over 4 years. This behavior is reminiscent of the equatorial oscillations in Earth's middle atmosphere. Here the zonal-mean spatial structure and descending pattern are driven by the absorption of vertically propagating waves. The maximum excursions in the pattern of easterly and westerly winds is determined by the limits of the zonal phase velocities of the waves. Here we report on the characterization of the waves seen in the temperature profiles retrieved from the Cassini radio-occultation soundings. The equatorial profiles exhibit a complex pattern of wavelike structure with dimensions one pressure scale height and smaller. We combine a spectral decomposition with a WKBJ analysis, where the vertical wavelength is assumed to vary slowly with the ambient static stability and doppler-shifted phase velocity of the wave. Use of the temperature and zonal wind maps from CIRS makes this approach viable. On Earth, the wave forcing associated with the equatorial oscillations generates secondary meridional circulations that affect the mean flow and planetary wave ducting well away from the equator. This may relate to the triggering of the recently reported mid-latitude storms on Saturn.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC.ABS.5523.2011 , American Geophysical Fall Union Meeting; 3-11 Dec. 2011; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2008-05-01
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 7
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-03-26
    Description: [1]  Column-averaged dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO 2 ) measured by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) reveal significant interannual variation (IAV) of CO 2 uptake during the Northern Hemisphere summer between 2009 and 2010. The XCO 2 drawdown in 2010 is shallower than in 2009 by 2.4 ppm and 3.0 ppm over North America and Eurasia, respectively. Reduced carbon uptake in the summer of 2010 is most likely due to the heat wave in Eurasia driving biospheric fluxes and fire emissions. A joint inversion of GOSAT and surface data estimates an integrated biospheric and fire emission anomaly in April–September of 0.89 ± 0.20 PgC over Eurasia. In contrast, inversions of surface measurements alone fail to replicate the observed XCO 2 IAV and underestimate emission IAV over Eurasia. This shows the value of GOSAT XCO 2 in constraining the response of land-atmosphere exchange of CO 2 to climate events.
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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