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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the in vitro germination and viability of conidia of the apple brown rot fungus (Monilinia fructigena), and on colonization and sporulation on detached fruits by M. fructigena. Conidia only germinated under near-saturation humidity (≥ 97% RH) and the rate of germination initially increased with temperature to a maximum at ≈ 23–25°C and then decreased. Conidia germinated rapidly – more than 70% of viable conidia had germinated within 2 h at 20 and 25°C. The rate of colonization on detached fruits increased log-linearly with increasing temperature. Sporulation on detached fruits was not observed at 5 or 25°C; sporulation appeared to be unaffected by either temperature (10–20°C) or RH (45–98%) once infection was established. Detached conidia remained viable for a long period of time, up to 20 days, the longest assessment time in this study, depending on storage temperature (10 or 20°C) and RH (45 or 85%). Temperature appeared to be more important than RH in affecting conidial viability. Low temperature and high RH resulted in reduced loss of conidial viability. Storage at 10°C and 85% RH for up to 20 days appeared not to affect conidial viability. These results indicate that environmental conditions during the main UK growing seasons are unlikely to be limiting factors for the development of brown rot on apple.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant pathology 50 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Infected barks of chestnut blight cankers, caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, were collected from a naturally infected orchard and incubated at different temperatures. Cankers started to discharge ascospores about a week after incubation at 15–25°C; most ascospores were collected at 20 and 25°C. When incubated at 5, 10 or 30°C, only a few cankers released a small number of ascospores and only during the later stages of incubation. However, the rate of formation of perithecia was not affected by the incubation temperature. The number of airborne ascospores was monitored using a volumetric spore trap in a chestnut orchard during 1996 and 1997. In both years, the number of ascospores trapped daily varied greatly, but in general it increased sharply from March onwards, reached a peak in May, and then declined steeply. There was a significant correlation between daily counts of ascospores and air temperature. Time-series transfer function (TF) analysis showed a positive association of the daily number of ascospores with increasing temperature, rain events and wet/humid conditions. In general, values predicted by the TF model agreed well with the observed pattern. However, a multiple regression equation based on TF analysis failed to provide a satisfactory prediction of the daily number of ascospores.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-8469
    Keywords: Daucus carota ; Pythium violae ; susceptibility ; cytochemistry ; pectin ; cellulose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Two carrot genotypes, cultivar Nanco and line 24, susceptible and partially- resistant respectively to cavity spot, were compared ultrastructurally and cytochemically 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after root inoculation with a virulent Pythium violae isolate. The extent of pathogen ingress and the response of the host differed markedly with the two genotypes. In cv Nanco, growth of fungal hyphae was predominantly intracellular and was accompanied by pronounced damage; by 48 h after inoculation, pericycle and the first cell layers of the phloem parenchyma were invaded, resulting in host wall dissolution and cytoplasm aggregation. The growth of P. violae in line 24 was limited to the pericycle, even up to 72 h after inoculation; fungal colonization was accompanied by retraction of cytoplasm and in the appearance of granular or fibrillar material in the host cell lumen. Some affected host cells were filled with structureless osmophilic material. In cultivar Nanco, invading fungal hyphae were unaffected; by contrast in line 24, the cytoplasm of invading hyphae, particularly those inside the cell host, was disorganised and structureless. Infection and host response in the two cultivars were studied with two specific labels: Aplysia gonad lectin (AGL), a polygalacturonic acid-binding lectin, and an exoglucanase complexed to colloidal gold were used to locate pectin and cellulosic β-(1,4)-glucans respectively in infected tissues. The decrease of cytochemical labeling beyong fungal penetration showed clearly hydrolysis of pectin and cellulose in cell walls of the cv Nanco. By contrast, the cell wall of line 24 remained largely intact, although, unlabeled amorphous and electron-dense material was observed inside the wall. Fibrillar or electron dense material commonly observed in infected tissue of line 24 apparently did not contain pectic or cellulosic substances. Moreover, material observed in host cells or fungal hyphae was also free of labeling. The origin and the chemical composition of these compounds as well as their possible role in the defence mechanisms of carrot against P. violae are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We report the epitaxial growth of silicon on a tungsten disilicide grating using a rapid thermal processing, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor. Results indicate that silicon grows selectively on the patterned Si/WSi2 structure, irrespective of the grating periodicity (from 0.6 μm up to several tens of microns). The epitaxial growth of silicon is shown to proceed two dimensionally on the Si surface and laterally over the WSi2 lines without any reaction with the underlying WSi2 grid. Preliminary electrical measurements of the Si/WSi2/Si overgrown permeable base transistor thus fabricated are presented, showing current densities Jmax of up to 6000 A/cm2 and transconductances gm of 5 mS/mm.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. However, 〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1985-08-01
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Electronic ISSN: 2156-2202
    Topics: Geosciences
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