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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Documenting source-transport-receptor relationships to pollution studies is an elusive, complex problem which contributes to most of the controversy over the origin of acid deposition in non-urban areas. While the combination of ground-based chemical measurements, meteorological trajectory analyses ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Launch vehicle effluent environmental impact activities from the first space shuttle (STS-1) included airborne measurements within the exhaust cloud from about 9 min after launch (T + 9) to T + 120 min. Measurements included total hydrogen chloride (gaseous plus aqueous) concentrations, particulate concentrations, temperature, and dewpoint temperature. The airborne measurements are summarized. The physical growth and behavior of exhaust clouds is presented as well as the results of laboratory analysis of elemental composition of particulate samples collected by the aircraft. Observed results from the STS-1 launch are compared with earlier Titan III results. Shuttle effluent concentrations are found to be within the range of Titan III observations.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA-TP-2090 , NAS 1.60:2090 , L-15494
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Airborne chlorine and hydrogen chloride measurements were made in the tropospheric ground cloud following the Voyager launches of August 20 and September 5, 1977. The maximum observed hydrogen chloride concentration for both launches was about 25 to 30 parts per million (ppm) occurring typically 2 to 6 minutes after launch. By completion of the sampling mission (1-1/2 hours for August, 4-1/2 hours for September), the maximum in-cloud concentration decayed to about 1 to 2 ppm. Maximum observed chlorine concentrations were about 40 to 55 parts per billion (ppb) about 2 to 8 minutes after launch; by about 15 minutes after launch, chlorine concentrations were less than 10 ppb (detection limit). In-cloud chlorine concentrations were well below 1 percent of hydrogen chloride concentrations. The appendix of the report discusses the chlorine instrument and the laboratory evaluation of the detector.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA-TM-78673
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Titan-Centaur was launched from Kennedy Space Center on February 11, 1974 at 0948 eastern daylight time. Ground level effluent measurements were obtained from the solid rocket motors for comparison with NASA diffusion models for predicting effluent ground level concentrations and cloud behavior. The results obtained provide a basis for an evaluation of such key model inputs such as cloud rise rate, stabilization altitude, crosswind growth, volume expansion, and cloud trajectory. Ground level effluent measurements were limited because of changing meteorological conditions, incorrect instrument location, and operational problems. Based on the measurement results, operational changes are defined. Photographs of the ground exhaust clouds are shown. The chemical composition of the exhaust gases was analyzed and is given.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-72820
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Downwind in situ ground-level measurements of the exhaust from a Titan 3 C launch vehicle were made during a normal launch. The measurement activity was conducted as part of an overall program to obtain field data for comparison with the multilayer dispersion model currently being used to predict the behavior of rocket vehicle exhaust clouds. All measurements were confined to land, ranging from the launch pad to approximately 2 kilometers downwind from the pad. Measurement systems included detectors for hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulates (Al2O3). Airborne and ground-based optical systems were employed to monitor exhaust cloud rise, growth, and movement. These measurement systems, located along the ground track (45 deg azimuth from the launch pad) of the exhaust cloud, showed no effluents attributable to the launch. Some hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide were detected in the surface wind direction (15 deg azimuth) from the pad. Comparisons with the model were made in three areas: (1) assumption of cloud geometry at stabilization; (2) prediction of cloud stabilization altitude; and (3) prediction of the path of cloud travel. In addition, the importance of elemental analyses of the particulate samples is illustrated.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-3228 , L-10120
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Characterization of engine-exhaust effluents (hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) has been attempted by conducting field experiments monitoring the exhaust cloud from a Scout-Algol III vehicle launch and a Delta-Thor vehicle launch. The exhaust cloud particulate size number distribution (total number of particles as a function of particle diameter), mass loading, morphology, and elemental composition have been determined within limitations. The gaseous species in the exhaust cloud have been identified. In addition to the ground-based measurements, instrumented aircraft flights through the low-altitude, stabilized-exhaust cloud provided measurements which identified CO and HCI gases and Al2O3 particles. Measurements of the initial exhaust cloud during formation and downwind at several distances have established sampling techniques which will be used for experimental verification of model predictions of effluent dispersion and fallout from exhaust clouds.
    Keywords: SPACE VEHICLES
    Type: L-9360 , NASA-TM-X-2987
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Southeastern Virginia Urban Plume Study (SEV-UPS) utilizes remote sensors and satellite platforms to monitor the Earth's environment and resources. SEV-UPS focuses on the application of specific remote sensors to the monitoring and study of specific air quality problems. The 1979 SEV-UPS field program was conducted with specific objectives: (1) to provide correlative data to evaluate the Laser Absorption spectrometer ozone remote sensors; (2) to demonstrate the utility of the sensor for the study of urban ozone problems; (3) to provide additional insights into air quality phenomena occuring in Southeastern Virginia; and (4) to compare measurement results of various in situ measurement platforms. The field program included monitoring from 12 surface stations, 4 aircraft, 2 tethered balloons, 2 radiosonde release sites, and numerous surface meteorological observation sites. The aircraft monitored 03, NO, NOX, Bscat, temperature, and dewpoint temperature.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA-TM-81860-VOL-1
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The second Space Shuttle (STS-2) was launched from the John F. Kennedy Space Center at 1010 EST on November 12, 1981. An instrumented light airplane was used to measure the emitted concentration of Shuttle exhaust products produced during launch. The airplane accomplished 31 passes through and under the exhaust cloud in the 1 hr 45 min immediately following the launch. Measurements included the following: (1) particulate data in the form of a light scattering coefficient obtained from an integrating nephelometer, (2) particulate concentrations and mass concentrations obtained from a spectrometer probe, (3) gaseous HCl and total HCl concentrations obtained from a gas-filter-correlation instrument and a chemiluminescent instrument, respectively, and (4) outside-air temperature and dew-point temperature. These data are presented along with time, altitude, and position for each cloud pass. These data are within the range of values observed during similar measurements made during the first Space Shuttle launch on April 12, 1981.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA-TP-2260 , L-15715 , NAS 1.60:2260
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In situ correlative measurements were obtained with a NASA aircraft in support of two NASA airborne remote sensors participating in the Environmental Protection Agency's 1980persistent elevated pollution episode (PEPE) and Northeast regional oxidant study (NEROS) field program in order to provide data for evaluating the capability of two remote sensors for measuring mixing layer height, and ozone and aerosol concentrations in the troposphere during the 1980 PEPE/NEROS program. The in situ aircraft was instrumented to measure temperature, dewpoint temperature, ozone concentrations, and light scattering coefficient. In situ measurements for ten correlative missions are given and discussed. Each data set is presented in graphical and tabular format aircraft flight plans are included.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA-TM-83107
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The data reported are these measured onboard the NASA Langley chartered Cessna aircraft. Data include ozone, nitrogen oxides, light scattering coefficient, temperature, dewpoint, and aircraft altitude.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA-TM-81860-VOL-2
    Format: application/pdf
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