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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Two structural arguments support the premise that Miranda has reoriented with respect to Uranus over its geologic history. Orientations of major extensional and compressional features are consistent with a major satellite reorientation similar to that previously suggested based on cratering asymmetry. Furthermore, structures within Elsinore Corona provide supporting evidence that this reorientation took place about a paleo-pole located near (-75 deg, 80 deg), suggesting a second minor reorientation of Miranda.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1111-1112
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Multispectral imaging from the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity has provided important new insights about the geology and geologic history of the rover landing sites and traverse locations in Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. Pancam observations from near-UV to near-IR wavelengths provide limited compositional and mineralogic constraints on the presence abundance, and physical properties of ferric- and ferrous-iron bearing minerals in rocks, soils, and dust at both sites. High resolution and stereo morphologic observations have also helped to infer some aspects of the composition of these materials at both sites. Perhaps most importantly, Pancam observations were often efficiently and effectively used to discover and select the relatively small number of places where in situ measurements were performed by the rover instruments, thus supporting and enabling the much more quantitative mineralogic discoveries made using elemental chemistry and mineralogy data. This chapter summarizes the major compositionally- and mineralogically-relevant results at Gusev and Meridiani derived from Pancam observations. Classes of materials encountered in Gusev crater include outcrop rocks, float rocks, cobbles, clasts, soils, dust, rock grindings, rock coatings, windblown drift deposits, and exhumed whitish/yellowish salty soils. Materials studied in Meridiani Planum include sedimentary outcrop rocks, rock rinds, fracture fills, hematite spherules, cobbles, rock fragments, meteorites, soils, and windblown drift deposits. This chapter also previews the results of a number of coordinated observations between Pancam and other rover-based and Mars-orbital instruments that were designed to provide complementary new information and constraints on the mineralogy and physical properties of martian surface materials.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Spirit landed in a flat plain in Gusev crater with local undulations at meters scales generated by ridges covered with blocks, some of them looking rounded. Several, flat-topped, mesas are visible in the far field in direction of Ma adim Vallis. A set of north/south oriented hills reaches approximately 150 m elevation to the east of the landing site (LS). A dipping brighter unit with possibly some scarps is associated with it. This setting could be consistent with layering observed on the MOC images of the hills, local exposure of material with variable dust cover, or deflated or allochtonous material. Numerous small depressions are visible from LS referred to as "Columbia Memorial Station"* (CMS). Floors are partially filled with finer-grained, high albedo material. At least one of them, nicknamed "Sleepy Hollow"* (approximately 30 m diameter) may be an eroded secondary impact crater. It is unclear if they can all be related to small impact structures. Some of them are elongated and aligned with the ridges. The morphology of rocks and soil at this Gusev Crater is presented. Evidence of dynamic aeolian action along this Crater is also discussed.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Missions; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The objective of this investigation is to develop a prototype floodwater detection algorithm for Hyperion imagery. It will be run autonomously onboard the EO-1 spacecraft under the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE). This effort resulted in the development of two classifiers for floodwater, one of several classifier types that have been developed and will be uploaded to EO-1 in early 2004 in order to detect change related to transient processes such as volcanism, flooding, and ice formation and retreat.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Image Processing and Earth Observations; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: In December 1992, the Galileo spacecraft passed through the Earth-Moon system for its final gravity assist to Jupiter. The SSI camera obtained several 6-color mosaics of the lunar north polar region and the sunlit nearside and eastern limb at approximately 1.3 km/pixel. Initial analyses have concentrated on the north polar areas to assess the composition of the crust in that region. Representative 6-color calibration SSI spectra (typically 5 x 5 pixels) are shown. Photometric corrections have not yet been applied, and all spectra are scaled to unity at 0.56 microns. The data were first calibrated relative to MS2, a standard are in Mare Serenitatis (18.7 deg N, 21.5 deg E), and the top four plots of highlands, highland craters, maria, and mare craters are displayed relative to MS2. SSI spectra of areas measured with telescopic data (mare MT1/MS2 and mare crater MSA/MS2) agree well with previous data, confirming that the calibration procedures and SSI data are spectrally accurate. The bottom three plots of craters/sun have been calibrated to reflectance using previously obtained telescopic spectra of Apollo 16/MS2 (shown with Highlands/MS2) and laboratory spectra of mature Apollo 16 soil (shown for reference with the Highland Craters/Sun). Although some variations in these spectra mimic previously observed spectra of lunar terrains, several characteristics are unusual. Familiar and unfamiliar properties are observed in these northern latitudes and both types merit further investigation in their geologic context.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1141-1142
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of approx.0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga).
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Journal Of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); Volume 111
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Panoramic Camera (Pancam) images from Meridiani Planum reveal a low-albedo, generally flat, and relatively rock-free surface. Within and around impact craters and fractures, laminated outcrop rocks with higher albedo are observed. Fine-grained materials include dark sand, bright ferric iron-rich dust, angular rock clasts, and millimeter-size spheroidal granules that are eroding out of the laminated rocks. Spectra of sand, clasts, and one dark plains rock are consistent with mafic silicates such as pyroxene and olivine. Spectra of both the spherules and the laminated outcrop materials indicate the presence of crystalline ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission. Astronomical observations captured solar transits by Phobos and Deimos and time-lapse observations of sunsets.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Science (ISSN 0036-8075); Volume 306; 5702; 1703-1709
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Aeolian abrasion is operative in many arid locations on Earth and is probably the dominant rock erosion process in the current Martian environment. Therefore, understanding the controlling parameters and rates of aeolian abrasion provides 1) insight into the stability of rocks on planetary surfaces and the environments under which the rocks abrade, and 2) a link between ventifact (a rock abraded by windblown particles) morphology and: a) abrasion conditions, b) possible ancient environments under which the rocks were abraded, and c) rock properties. promising and we plan further investigations in the wind tunnel and field. Our intent here is to discuss the basic technique, initial results, and upcoming plans.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: The Future of Mars Surface Exploration; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Knowledge of the global distribution of Europan geologic units in time and space is a necessary step for the synthesis of the results of the Galileo mission and in preparation for future exploration (namely, by JIMO) of the satellite. We have initiated the production of the first Global Geological Map of Europa. As a base map, we use the recently published global photomosaic of Europa (U.S.G.S. Map I-2757) and additional Galileo SSI images at their original resolution. The map is being produced entirely on GIS format for analysis and combination with other datasets [1]. One of the main objectives of this project is to establish a global stratigraphic framework for Europa. In the absence of a well-developed cratering record, this goal will be achieved using the satellite s global network of lineaments (ridges, ridge complexes and bands; cf. [2]). Here we present the preliminary stratigraphic framework synthesized from the sequence of lineaments derived for the northern trailing hemisphere of Europa (Figure 1, below), and we discuss its significance and some emerging implications.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Outer Solar System; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The Viking and the Mars Exploration Rover missions observed that the surface of Mars is encrusted by a thinly cemented layer tagged as "duricrust". A hypothesis to explain the formation of duricrust on Mars should address not only the potential mechanisms by which these materials become cemented, but also the textural and compositional components of cemented Martian soils. Elemental analyzes at five sites on Mars show that these soils have sulfur content of up to 4%, and chlorine content of up to 1%. This is consistent with the presence of sulfates and halides as mineral cements. . For comparison, the rock "Adirondack" at the MER site, after the exterior layer was removed, had nearly five times lower sulfur and chlorine content , and the Martian meteorites have ten times lower sulfur and chlorine content, showing that the soil is highly enriched in the saltforming elements compared with rock.Here we propose two alternative models to account for the origin of these crusts, each requiring the action of transient liquid water films to mediate adhesion and cementation of grains. Two alternative versions of the transient water hypothesis are offered, a top down hypothesis that emphasizes the surface deposition of frost, melting and downward migration of liquid water and a bottom up alternative that proposes the presence of interstitial ice/brine, with the upward capillary migration of liquid water.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Missions; LPI-Contrib-1197
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