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  • 1
    Call number: O 4604(13)
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 245 S.
    Series Statement: Geodynamics project. Scientific report 13
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer
    Call number: M 381
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XIII, 551 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 3540112782
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2007-10-08
    Description: Calcite petrofabrics are sensitive to weak strains, possibly being the most sensitive classical petrofabric indicator. Thus, calcareous sediments may reveal stress trajectories in neotectonic environments. Calcite aligns by crystal-plastic deformation and pressure solution produce corresponding alignments in accessory clay minerals and magnetite (possibly fossil-bacterial). Their alignments are rapidly and precisely detected by anisotropy of low field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) with net magnetic fabrics, which blend diamagnetic contributions from matrix calcite (diamagnetic bulk susceptibility {kappa} [~] -14 {micro}SI), accessory clay minerals ({kappa} = 100 to 500 {micro}SI) and sometimes trace magnetite ({kappa} > 2 SI). Their relative abundances and different anisotropies must be considered in interpreting AMS orientations, nevertheless our study reveals orientation distributions of AMS axes in sub-areas and regions that are sensibly interpreted as palaeostress trajectories in Neogene and Quaternary strata. The AMS axes may be correlated with the orientation of faults, plate-motion vectors and seismic solutions. Large samples (1090 specimens from 419 sites) are treated by different statistical approaches ( standardization') to emphasize or suppress the contribution of subfabrics with anomalous mean susceptibility. A sub-sample of 254 specimens from 219 sites, from different sub-areas was investigated by anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence (AARM), which isolates the orientation distributions of magnetite. Magnetic fabrics are mostly of the L-S kind with the magnetic lineations compatible with gravitational stretching of the sedimentary cover away from the Troodos massif and orthogonal to the principal faults and graben. The L-direction (kmax) shows a smooth variation in orientation, through the sub-areas, directed radially from the Troodos massif and the S-components of the magnetic fabrics are inclined gently to the bedding, compatible with vergence toward the Cyprean Arc to the S and SW of Cyprus.
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  • 4
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 238: 299-360.
    Publication Date: 2007-10-08
    Description: For 40 years magnetic anisotropy has provided successful geological interpretations of magnetic ellipsoid orientations; in contrast the interpretation of anisotropy magnitudes is far more convoluted. This is due to complexities at various levels within rocks, including different physical magnetic responses of different minerals, grain-scale magnetic anisotropy, the anisotropy of interacting ensembles, the mineralogical constitution of rocks and the processes and mechanisms that align minerals in nature. The chief factors determining the magnetic fabrics of tectonized rocks include: mineral-physics properties, crystal symmetry, mineral-abundances, tectonic symmetry and crystal orientation-distribution, strain or stress, kinematic history and certain tectono-metamorphic processes (e.g. diffusion, crystal plasticity, dynamic recrystallization, particulate flow, neomineralization). AMS ultimately provides an integrated record of some combination of these factors. Subfabrics due to distinct processes or events may be expressed in different mineral and/or grain-size fractions, and are superposed in the conventionally observed AMS. Their discrimination may be achieved by various laboratory techniques such as magnetization and torque measurements in weak and strong applied fields, anisotropy of ARM and IRM, gyroremanence, Rayleigh magnetization, chemical leaching. However, under limited circumstances, statistical approaches such as differential analysis, tensor standardization, symmetry of confidence regions for the principal axes may partly isolate different subfabric orientations.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2010-06-21
    Description: This contribution presents a new model for the Grampian-age tectonothermal development of the Buchan Block and Barrovian-type regions to its west, in the Grampian Terrane, Scotland. The model has drawn on evidence gathered from field mapping, microstructural analysis, metamorphic petrology and mafic magma geochemistry to propose that emplacement of the Grampian gabbros and regional metamorphic heating associated with production of Barrovian- and Buchan-type units occurred during syn-orogenic (Grampian-age), lithospheric-scale extension. Extension followed lithospheric thickening associated with the initiation of Grampian orogenesis and was followed by renewed lithospheric thickening and termination of the extensional heating. Mantle melting to produce the Grampian gabbros of the Grampian Terrane was achieved by extensional thinning of the lithosphere and decompression melting of the asthenosphere at depths of less than 70 km. Advection of heat from the mantle with emplacement of the Grampian gabbros augmented elevated heat budgets associated with attenuation of isotherms during extension. Deposition of the uppermost Dalradian (the Whitehills and Boyndie Bay Groups and the Macduff Slates) occurred during Grampian-age lithospheric extension. A gently-dipping, mid-crustal detachment focused metamorphic heat sources and accommodated significant lithospheric-scale strain, allowing independent thermal evolution of units in its hanging wall (the Buchan Block) and footwall (Barrovian-type units).
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  • 6
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 238: 61-68.
    Publication Date: 2007-10-08
    Description: Magnetic fabric changes due to progressive metamorphism are poorly understood. Bulk magnetic susceptibility ({kappa}) is known to increase with metamorphic grade but anisotropy changes have been neglected. To combine information on anisotropy with bulk susceptibility, we introduce a projection with three axes:{kappa} , ellipsoidal eccentricity (Pj, the so-called anisotropy degree', despite the fact that this is quantified) and ellipsoid symmetry (Tj) as independent variables. The projection reveals that metamorphic facies can be discriminated successfully in the 3-D projection, with distinct, significant regression surfaces for crustal metamorphic rocks metamorphosed successively in greenschist, amphibolite, and granulite facies. This emphasizes that bulk magnetic susceptibility ({kappa}) and its anisotropies ( magnetic fabric') evolve in response to metamorphic process, not just strain. Moreover, post-tectonic granitic plutons, upper mantle harzburgites and serpentinized mantle rocks also have characteristic regression surfaces relating{kappa} , Pj and Tj in the new projection.
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  • 7
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 300: 137-146.
    Publication Date: 2008-06-30
    Description: Like every other human endeavour in the modern world geological conservation has evolved from the changing desires and necessities of evolving communities. Local people in generations past had a need to be in tune' with their local landscapes and the environments making use of local materials and landform in order to survive and prosper. These early communities have enriched our modern landscapes with their legacy of geodiversity in altered landscapes, the built environment and venerated geological features. In a modern context we may consider geoconservation' to be the conservation of geodiversity' and we should acknowledge that local people and historic communities have had a very long involvement in conserving geological heritage although often without consciously doing so. This is particularly the case in terms of landscape and the applied geology of the built environment. Early local communities were usually of low cultural diversity with values of narrow focus. It is commonly local people and local specialist interest societies that have made geological discoveries and brought their importance to the attention of the specialists. In the late 1900s local groups drove the development of what is now the familiar framework for protection of geological heritage and in particular the non-statutory sites and features that rely being locally valued for their sustainability and survival. This paper cannot be a comprehensive account of the evolution of peoples and their changing engagement with geodiversity. It is, rather, a summary account using selected scattered illustrations of geoconservation through the ages. It examines what we mean by local community and its involvement, either consciously or unconsciously, in protecting geodiversity through stages in human history.
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  • 8
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    In:  European Union of Geosciences (EUG-9) (Strasbourg 1997) ; Year: 1997
    Publication Date: 2013-10-16
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/ConferencePaper
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1574-0277
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract With the increasing availability of statistics describing the occupational structures of different industries manpower forecasters are beginning to develop more sophisticated models. The economic rationale of such models has tended to be obscured by the mathematics involved and an understandable eagerness to put the data to use in forecasting. In addition, the systematic testing of the explanatory power of these models has been neglected where it has not been hampered by the shortage of data series. The RAS model has featured prominently in manpower discussions and this paper attempts an evaluation of its predictive ability and economic interpretation subject to the limits imposed by the data available for the British engineering industry. It is argued that such a model plays a useful initial role in the development of models for sectoral manpower forecasting but must lead on to a more sensitive treatment of the labour market and the decision problem of investing in human capital.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Vasomotor nerves ; Skeletal muscle ; 6-hydroxydopamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Vasomotor nervous distribution to arteries in the cat gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was investigated in the normal and 6-hydroxydopamine treated animal. Muscle samples were processed for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase by a thiocholine method and for the presence of catecholamines by a formol fluorescence technique. In isolated perfused muscle preparations noradrenaline or adrenaline increased perfusion pressure while acetylcholine or isoprenaline decreased this pressure. A beaded fluorescent periarterial plexus (not visualised after reserpine treatment) was observed. Vasomotor axons, all of which were ACHE-negative, exhibited degenerative changes following 6-hydroxydopamine injection, while ACHE-positive axons outside the adventitial sheath were unaffected. No indication of cholinergic periarterial nerves was found and our evidence suggests that the vasomotor innervation is adrenergic sympathetic in nature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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