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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Cattle in the Kempen area (in the province North-Brabant, the Netherlands) were investigated for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper in livers and kidneys. The animals originated from farms located within a 20 km radius around several zinc refinery plants. The local soil is polluted with zinc and cadmium because of a thermal refining process used in the past. Mean cadmium organ concentrations were 2.5 times, and mean lead organ concentrations were 1.5 times higher than the concentrations found in controls. Copper levels tended to be decreased, but zinc levels did not differ from controls. The observed cadmium and lead organ concentrations did not indicate intoxication of the animals, but 22% of the kidneys and 3% of the livers investigated trespassed the maximum tolerance limit of cadmium with regard to human consumption. Continuous control of cadmium organ contents in organs from slaughtercattle kept in cadmium-polluted areas is recommended.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Carbadox ; aldosterone ; adrenal damage ; zona glomerulosa ; electrolyte homeostasis ; pig
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary An exploratory study was made of the mechanisms underlying the toxic action of carbadox in young pigs: dehydration, loss of appetite and at autopsy seemingly specific and selective structural alterations of the glomerular zone of the adrenal cortex. Administration of carbadox in the feed, in dosages of 150 ppm (approximately 6 mg·kg−1 b.wt·day−1) caused a rapid decline in the plasma aldosterone levels (to 10% of control) followed by significant changes in the sodium and potassium levels in blood. Characteristic for the toxic action of carbadox are the rapid and seemingly selective and specific alterations in the aldosterone-releasing zona glomerulosa of the adrenals. Our results indicate that with carbadox a functional and possibly reversible extirpation of the adrenal zona glomerulosa can be achieved in pigs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2109
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: In order to obtain an appropriate and reliable method for the mass production of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) fingerlings. experiments on artificial reproduction and pond rearing were carried out in the Republic of Congo in 1987-1991. Reproduction could be induced throughout the year using common carp pituitaries (3 mg kg−1 female). The average relative fecundity of females varied between 1.3%± 0.3 (SEM) and 14.3%±1.3 (SEM). The average hatching percentage of the eggs varied between 28.4%± 4.5 (SEM) and 59.1%± 3.7 (SEM) respectively, in the dry and rainy season. The fluctuation of the relative fecundity as well as the fluctuation of the hatching percentage follows the seasonal fluctuation in rainfall and temperature. The use of a net cage made of mosquito netting (1 m3, 0.5 mm mesh size) and the roots of water hyacinth (E. crassipes) as an egg incubator proved to be reliable. In ponds not protected against frogs an average of 5.0 ± 2.9 (SEM) fingerlings m−2 per 40 days cycle were obtained, whereas in ponds completely surrounded by a wall of aluminium roof plates (0.8 m high) the average production was 32.3 ± 3.3 (SEM) fingerlings nr- per 40 days cycle, when they are stocked with approximately 100 larvae m−2. Increasing the larval stocking density or extending the rearing period did not improve the final production. The main causes of low production in unprotected ponds are competition for food resources due to the presence of phytophagous frog larvae and cannibalism among the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus. An analysis showed that the system is labour orientated, technically reliable and economically feasible when the fingerlings can be sold for USS 0.07 apiece.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-11-24
    Description: de Graaf, G. J., Grainger, R. J. R., Westlund, L., Willmann, R., Mills, D., Kelleher, K., and Koranteng, K. 2011. The status of routine fishery data collection in Southeast Asia, central America, the South Pacific, and West Africa, with special reference to small-scale fisheries. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: 1743–1750. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) strategy for improving information on the status and trends of capture fisheries (FAO Strategy STF) was endorsed by Member States and the UN General Assembly in 2003. Its overall objective is to provide a framework, strategy, and plan to improve knowledge and understanding of the status and trends of fisheries as a basis for policy-making and management, towards conservation and sustainable use of resources within ecosystems. The FAO supports the implementation of FAO Strategy STF in developing countries through a project known as FAO FishCode–STF, and an initiative funded by the World Bank entitled the "BigNumbers project". The BigNumbers project underscored the importance of small-scale fisheries and revealed that catches by and employment in this sector tend to be underreported. An inventory of data collection systems made under the FAO FishCode–STF project showed that small-scale fisheries are not well covered. Their dispersed nature, the weak institutional capacity in many developing countries, and the traditional methods used make routine data collection cumbersome. Innovative sampling strategies are required. The main priority is a sample frame for small-scale fisheries. Sustainable strategies are most likely to be found outside the sector through population and agricultural household censuses and inside the sector through the direct involvement of fishers.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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