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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0449-2986
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary Mechanochemical polymerization in systems of diallyl terephthalate-distilled water has been studied by ultrasonic irradiation at 90°C. An additional effect of distilled water on mechanochemical polymerization of diallyl terephthalate was investigated. When a 1.2 wt % distilled water solution, the conversion of poly(diallyl terephthalate) was the greatest and the initial rate of the polymerization R p was 1.3x10-5 mol/l sec. This polymerization proceeded by a radical mechanism and the primary radicals produced from water molecules by ultrasonic waves. In addition, changes in the iodine value and the weight-average molecular weight of the resulting polymers were proved.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary Tetrapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS), an amino acid sequence existing in the cell-attachment domain of fibronectin, was synthesized using improved solid-phase procedure. Cell-attachment activity of the RGDS toward L-929 fibroblast cells originating in mouse epithelia was examined by measuring (a) the number of cells attached onto RGDS-immobilized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film, and (b) the % inhibition of cell-attachment onto polystyrene substrate from suspension of the cells in the presence of RGDS molecules. It was found that (a) a number of cells attached to the RGDS-immobilized PVA films, and (b) RGDS molecules remarkably attached to the cells, and as a result, RGDS inhibited the cells to adhere onto the substrate.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary Mechanical degradation and mechanochemical block copolymerization in systems of poly(vinyl chloride)-methyl methacrylate-solvents have been studied by ultrasonic irradiation at 60°C. The effect of the concentrations of poly(vinyl chloride) on mechanical degradation was investigated. In addition, the effects of poly(vinyl chloride) and methyl methacrylate concentrations on mechanochemical block copolymerization were investigated. The rate equation for mechanochemical block copolymerization has been deduced, and the experimental results were in fairly good agreement with the equation. The changes in the composition of the block copolymer and homopolymers in the reaction products were followed by turbidimetric titration.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Der Einfluß von Glycidylmethacrylat (GMA) auf die durch den BF3-Ätherkomplex katalysierte Polymerisation von Tetrahydrofuran (THF) wurde studiert. Glycidylacetat (GA) wurde als Bezugssubstanz für GMA verwendet. GMA und GA waren Cokatalysatoren, und faseriges, hochkristallines Poly-THF von hohem Molekulargewicht wurde erhalten. GMA oder GA stellen auch Comonomere dar; die erhaltenen öligen oder wachsartigen Copolymeren des GMA enthielten noch ungesättigte Gruppen der GMA-Monomereinheiten. Die GMA-Copolymeren wurden durch Erhitzen gealtert und mit Hilfe radikalischer Initiatoren auf Styrol oder Methylmethacrylat aufgepfropft.
    Notes: The effect of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) on the polymerization of tetrahydrofuran (THF) catalyzed by boron trifluoride-diethyl ether complex at 0°C. has been investigated. Glycidyl acetate (GA) was used as a reference compound for GMA. GMA and GA acted as cocatalysts and fibrous, highly crystalline and high molecular weight poly-THF was obtained. GMA and GA could also serve as a comonomer; the resulting oily or waxy copolymers of GMA contained unsaturation from GMA units. The copolymers with GMA were cured by heating and grafted to styrene and methyl methacrylate in the presence of radical initiators.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Tetrapeptides, Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS), Arg-Gly-Asp-Val (RGDV), and Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr (RGDT), present in the cell-attachment domain of fibronectin, vitronectin, and collagen, respectively, were synthesized by using an improved liquid-phase procedure. Bioactivities of RGD and RGDX (X = S, V, and T) as cell recognition determinants were investigated by two methods to evaluate interactions of these oligopeptides with L-929 fibroblast cells originating in mouse epithelia. In the first method, these oligopeptides were immobilized to ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) film, and the cell-attachment activity of the immobilized film was measured. In the second method, interaction of oligopeptides with the cells was evaluated by measuring the cell inhibition caused by oligopeptides. It was found that RGD and RGDX exhibit remarkable cellattachment activity, and the activity of oligopeptides depends on X.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The properties of butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers were compared with those of polybutadiene-polyacrylonitrile blends. Also, the properties of copolymers having an acrylonitrile unit content of about 30% were compared with those of polymer blends having the same acrylonitrile unit content, i.e., NBR-NBR, polybutadiene-NBR, and polyacrylonitrile-NBR, having different acrylonitrile unit contents. These blends were prepared by roll blending and the vulcanizates were prepared by sulfur cure. The properties of the copolymers were markedly different from those of the blends, that is, in the blends the properties showed a linear relationship with their blending ratios, while in the copolymers the properties showed a curvilinear relationship. In the cases of the polymer blends having a constant acrylonitrile unit content, those blends which were prepared by blending two polymers having similar acrylonitrile unit contents showed better properties than the ones having very different acrylonitrile unit contents.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The marked discolorations observed on aged poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing synergetic metal soaps, in the early heating stage, were due to the excessive coloration of π complex of metal chloride and double bonds in the polyene chain. These excessive colorations were inhibited by masking the excessive metal chloride with some masking agents, thereby slowing down the abrupt discoloration of PVC. In this paper, the masking effect of various alcohols such as 1,2-butanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 2,3-butanediol, hexylene glycol, glycerol, 1,2,4-butanetriol, trimethylolethane, trimethylolpropane, meso-erythritol, pentaerythritol, sorbitol, and dipentaerythritol is investigated. The polyhydric alcohols, except dihydric alcohols, showed superior masking effect and markedly improved the thermal stabilization effects of synergetic metal soaps. The mechanism for the synergetic effects between polyols and metal soaps should be based on the masking effect of polyols, owing to the formation of the colorless complex of polyols with excess metal chlorides obtained from the metal soap.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Mechanical degradation and mechanochemical polymerization in polystyrene-styrene-cyclohexanone mixtures have been studied by ultrasonic irradiation at 60°C. The number of fresh polymer chains after the degradation is 2 × 10-5 mole l-1 hr-1. The rate equations for mechanical scission and mechanochemical polymerization have been deduced. The rate equation for mechanical scission was found to be in agreement with the expression of a previous paper. In addition, the rate equation for mechanochemical polymerization is not essentially different from that for the general radical polymerization in the presence of solvents. The kinetic chain length for polymeric free radicals in the polymerization process has been calculated. The mechanochemical polymerization of styrene was initiated by only one of the two kinds of end radicals after mechanical scission of polystyrene. The molecular weight distributions of the samples after the degradation and the polymerization have been compared and discussed.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0360-6376
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The pyrolysis of chlorinated polybutadienes (CPB) was investigated by using a pyrolysis gas chromatograph. CPB corresponds to poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) constructed with head-head and tail-tail linkages of the vinyl chloride unit. Benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, o-xylene, styrene, vinyltoluene, chlorobenzenes, naphthalene, and methylnaphthalenes were detected in the pyrolysis products from CPB above 300°C, and no hydrocarbons could be detected at 200°C. The pyrolysis products from CPB were similar to those from PVC and new products could not be detected. Lower aliphatics, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, chlorobenzenes, and methylnaphthalenes were released more easily from pyrolysis of CPB than from PVC; amounts of benzene, styrene, and naphthalene formed were small. These results support the conclusion that recombination of chlorine atoms with the double bonds in the polyene chain takes place and that scission of the main chain may depend on the location of methylene groups isolated along the polyene chain during the thermal decomposition of PVC.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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