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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: calcium ; chloride ; cotton ; photosynthesis ; potassium ; sodium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The optimum Ca2+ concentration for growth of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Acala SJ-2) was in the range 1 to 15 mol m−3 for plants growing in hydroponic culture with 100–150 mol m−3 NaCl. Most saline (but not sodic) soils contain higher Ca2+ concentrations. CaCl2 was inhibitory to the growth of cotton above 20–50 mol m−3. Increasing concentrations of Ca2+ in the range 0–2 mol m−2 drastically reduced Na+ accumulation in the leaves. As CaCl2 concentrations were increased above the optimum for growth there was a further reduction in leaf Na+ accumulation, but this was more than offset by increased leaf Ca2+ and Cl− concentrations. Leaf K+ concentrations were not much affected by changes in external CaCl2 concentrations. The response of Mg2+ varied from an increase to a decrease with increasing external CaCl2 and was influenced by nutritional status. There was no evidence that high Ca2+ caused a deficiency of Mg2+ in cotton. Except for Cl−, whose concentrations tended to decrease initially and then increase as the CaCl2 concentration increased, the anions were largely unaffected by changes in external CaCl2.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: amphiploid ; hypoxia ; salinity ; Thinopyrum ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effects of sodium chloride salinity and hypoxia were studied in eight wheat lines and three wheat-Thinopyrum amphiploids in vermiculite-gravel culture. The lines were treated with either 100 or 150 mol m−3 NaCl with and without hypoxia. Saline hypoxic conditions significantly reduced the vegetative growth, water use, grain and straw yields for all wheat varieties except the amphiploids, whereas NaCl or hypoxia alone had less pronounced effects. In addition, saline hypoxic stress reduced K+ concentration and increased significantly the Na+ and Cl− concentrations in cell sap expressed from leaves. There was more Na+ and Cl− accumulation in wheats than the amphiploids in hypoxic conditions at 150 mol m−3 NaCl. Of the wheats, Pato was the most sensitive at all stress levels while aTriticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring ×Thinopyrum elongatum amphiploid was the most tolerant of the three amphiploids.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: ADH ; aerenchyma ; hypoxia ; LDH ; salinity ; wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effects of NaCl salinity (100 or 150 mol m-3) and hypoxia on seedlings of several wheat varieties (Lyallpur-90, SARC-1, Pato, Tchere, Pb-85, Siete Cerros, Chinese Spring and a Chinese Spring × Thinopyrum elongatum amphidiploid) were studied in solution culture. In vivo studies of activities of different enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cytochrome oxidase (COase)) extracted from Pato and Pb-85 included the effect of salinity with and without hypoxia, while during in vitro studies, NaCl, glycinebetaine and proline were added to the assay mixture. The extent of aerenchyma formation was also determined in Pato, Chinese Spring and a Chinese Spring × Thinopyrum elongatum amphidiploid. Imposition of hypoxia greatly induced ADH and LDH activity in roots of wheat seedlings after a week-long exposure. However, exposure of roots to salinity also slightly increased LDH and ADH activity compared with the non-saline control. On a relative basis, Pato had higher ADH activity under hypoxic (21×) or saline-hypoxic stress (20×) than in aerated conditions. Hypoxia alone or in the presence of salts decreased COase activity in both Pato and Pb-85. The in vitro studies revealed that NaCl (on an equimolar basis at up to 500 mol m-3) is more disruptive than glycinebetaine or proline. LDH was more sensitive to NaCl than ADH. Aerenchyma development was higher near the root-shoot interface compared to near the root tip. Salinity under hypoxic conditions significantly reduced aerenchyma development near the root tip and root-shoot interface compared to hypoxia alone. Neither enzyme activity nor aerenchyma formation could account for varietal differences in tolerance to hypoxia alone or in combination with salinity.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 89 (1985), S. 15-40 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Elytrigia ; Epicuticular waxes ; Halophytes ; Leymus ; Potassium ; Roots ; Salt tolerance ; Shoots ; Sodium ; Transpiration ; Triticum ; Water use efficiency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary In the first part of this review the main features of salt tolerance in higher plants are discussed. The hypothesis of intracellular compartmentation of solutes is used as a basis for models of tolerance mechanisms operating in roots and in leaves. Consideration is given to the implications of the various mechanisms for the yield potential of salt-tolerant crop plants. Some work on the more salt-tolerant members of the Triticeae is then described. The perennial speciesElytrigia juncea andLeymus sabulosus survive prolonged exposure to 250 mol m−3 NaCl, whereas the annual Triticum species are severely affected at only 100 mol m−3 NaCl. In the perennial species the tissue ion levels are controlled within narrow limits. In contrast, the more susceptible wheats accumulate far more sodium and chloride than is needed for osmotic adjustment, and the effects of salt stress increase with time of exposure. Two different types of salt tolerance are exhibited in plants capable of growing at high salinities. In succulent Chenopodiaceae, for example, osmotic adjustment is achieved mainly by accumulation of high levels of sodium and chloride in the shoots, accompanied by synthesis of substantial amounts of the compatible solute glycinebetaine. This combination of mechanisms allows high growth rates, in terms of both fresh and dry weight. At the opposite end of the spectrum of salt tolerance responses are the halophytic grasses, which strictly limit the influx of salts into the shoots, but suffer from very much reduced growth rates under saline conditions. Another variation is shown in those species that possess salt glands. The development and exploitation of crop plants for use on saline soils is discussed in relation to the implications of these various mechanisms.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Ion transport ; Salinity (ion uptake) ; Salt tolerance (genetic trait) ; Triticum (salt tolerance)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The long arm of chromosome 4D of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contains a gene (or genes) which influences the ability of wheat plants to discriminate between Na+ and K+. This discrimination most obviously affects transport from the roots to the shoots, in which less Na+ and more K+ accumulate in those plants which contain the long arm of chromosome 4D. Concentrations of Na+ and K+ in the roots, and Cl− concentrations in the roots and shoots, are not significantly affected by this trait, but Na+, K+ and Cl− contents of the grain are reduced. The trait operates over a wide range of salinities and appears to be constitutive. At the moment it is not possible to determine accurately the effect of this trait on growth or grain yield because the aneuploid lines which are available are much less vigorous and less fertile than their euploid parents.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Triticum aestivum ; T. turgidum ; Aegilops squarrosa ; Cation uptake ; D genome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary K/Na ratios have been determined in the leaves of salt-treated plants of 14 disomic substitution lines in which each of the D-genome chromosomes replaces the homoeologous A- or B-genome chromosome in the tetraploid wheat variety Langdon (AABB genome). Aneuploid lines of hexaploid bread wheat (cv Chinese Spring) having a reduced or an enhanced complement of chromosome 4D have also been examined. These investigations show that the gene(s) determining K/Na ratios in the leaves of wheat plants grown in the presence of salt is located on the long arm of chromosome 4D.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Triticum ; Na+ exclusion ; K+/Na+ ratio ; Salt tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Durum wheat, Triticum turgidum L. (2n= 4x=28, genome formula AABB) is inferior to bread wheat, T. aestivum L. (2n=6x=42, genome formula AABBDD), in the ability to exclude Na+ under salt strees, in the ratio of the accumulated K+ to Na+ in the leaves under salt stress, and in tolerance of salt stress. Previous work showed that chromosome 4D has a major effect on Na+ and K+ accumulation in the leaves of bread wheat. The 4D chromosome was recombined with chromosome 4B in the genetic background of durum wheat. The recombinants showed that Na+ exclusion and enhanced K+/Na+ ratio in the shoots were controlled by a single locus, Kna1, in the long arm of chromosome 4D. The recombinant families were grown in the field under non-saline conditions and two levels of salinity to determine whether Kna1 confers salt tolerance. Under salt stress, the Kna1 families had higher K+/Na+ ratios in the flag leaves and higher yields of grain and biomass than the Kna1 - families and the parental cultivars. Kna1 is, therefore, one of the factors responsible for the higher salt tolerance of bread wheat relative to durum wheat. The present work provides conceptual evidence that tolerance of salt stress can be transferred between species in the tribe Triticeae.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Triticum ; K/Na discrimination ; Salt tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A number of accessions of the three species of diploid wheat, Triticum boeoticum, T. monococcum, and T. urartu, were grown in 50 mol m-3 NaCl+2.5 mol m-3 CaCl2. Sodium accumulation in the leaves was low and potassium concentrations remained high. This was not the case in T. durum grown under the same conditions, and indicates the presence in diploid wheats of the enhanced K/Na discrimination character which has previously been found in Aegilops squarrosa and hexaploid wheat. None of the accessions of diploid wheat showed poor K/Na discrimination, which suggests that if the A genome of modern tetraploid wheats was derived from a diploid Triticum species, then the enhanced K/Na discrimination character became altered after the formation of the original allopolyploid. Another possibility is that a diploid wheat that did not have the enhanced K/Na discrimination character was involved in the hybridization event which produced tetraploid wheat, and that this diploid is now extinct or has not yet been discovered.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Analytica Chimica Acta 138 (1982), S. 277-283 
    ISSN: 0003-2670
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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