Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
Abstract The effects of NaCl salinity (100 or 150 mol m-3) and hypoxia on seedlings of several wheat varieties (Lyallpur-90, SARC-1, Pato, Tchere, Pb-85, Siete Cerros, Chinese Spring and a Chinese Spring × Thinopyrum elongatum amphidiploid) were studied in solution culture. In vivo studies of activities of different enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cytochrome oxidase (COase)) extracted from Pato and Pb-85 included the effect of salinity with and without hypoxia, while during in vitro studies, NaCl, glycinebetaine and proline were added to the assay mixture. The extent of aerenchyma formation was also determined in Pato, Chinese Spring and a Chinese Spring × Thinopyrum elongatum amphidiploid. Imposition of hypoxia greatly induced ADH and LDH activity in roots of wheat seedlings after a week-long exposure. However, exposure of roots to salinity also slightly increased LDH and ADH activity compared with the non-saline control. On a relative basis, Pato had higher ADH activity under hypoxic (21×) or saline-hypoxic stress (20×) than in aerated conditions. Hypoxia alone or in the presence of salts decreased COase activity in both Pato and Pb-85. The in vitro studies revealed that NaCl (on an equimolar basis at up to 500 mol m-3) is more disruptive than glycinebetaine or proline. LDH was more sensitive to NaCl than ADH. Aerenchyma development was higher near the root-shoot interface compared to near the root tip. Salinity under hypoxic conditions significantly reduced aerenchyma development near the root tip and root-shoot interface compared to hypoxia alone. Neither enzyme activity nor aerenchyma formation could account for varietal differences in tolerance to hypoxia alone or in combination with salinity.
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