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  • 1
    ISSN: 1871-4528
    Keywords: minimum stomatal resistance ; soil water ; Solanum tuberosum L. ; photosynthetic photon flux density ; vapour pressure deficit
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Leaf stomatal resistance varies considerably in response to changes in environmental conditions. Understanding cultivar differences in the response of stomata to these conditions is important for effectively simulating water-use and growth. In this study the stomatal resistance of three field grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Atlantic. Monona and Norchip was observed in response to photosynthetic photon flux density, leaf to air vapour pressure difference and root zone available soil water. Substantial variation in stomatal resistance was accounted for by functions of the environmental variables for both Monona and Norchip. The explained variation for Atlantic was considerably less. Light saturation occurred near 500 μmol m−2 s−1. Increasing stomatal resistance above 1000 μmol m−2s−1 was also observed but is likely an artifact of stomatal closure on days in which mid-day leaf water potentials dropped below critical levels. Although the leaf presumably insufficient to obtain substantial effects. The soil water status was partially linked to the average 1000 h to 1500 h stomatal resistance on clear, sunny days. Significant differences were observed among the cultivars in the response of stomata to changes in the available soil water.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1871-4528
    Keywords: Solanum tuberosum L. ; in situ
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The first large scale outdoor measurements of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) stem water potential (SWP) usingin situ temperature-corrected stem psychrometers were performed on three cultivars common to Ontario, Canada (Atlantic, Monona and Norchip). Potato plants were examined under three soil water treatments which included rainfed, irrigated and stressed through the use of rain shelters. Cultivar variations in SWP under both irrigated and rainfed conditions were slight (P〉0.05), although some significant (P〈0.05) differences in mid-day SWP were evident, especially under conditions conducive to high atmospheric water demand. Under these conditions. cv. Atlantic maintained the lowest SWP with cv. Monona highest and cv. Norchip was intermediate. Few differences in pre-dawn SWP were detected between the three cultivars under well watered and rainfed conditions. Under low soil water, significant differences (P〈0.05) were observed. The similar trend of Atlantic maintaining the lowest SWP with Monona the highest was consistent.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 19 (1975), S. 909-913 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 21 (1977), S. 1421-1438 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A constitutive equation which has proven quite successful in describing the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of dilute polymer solutions is extended to the case of molten polymers. The techniques utilized and similar to those discussed by Ferry in a similar adaptation of the Rouse-Zimm Theory. The resulting model is found to quantitatively portray the shear rate dependence of the non-Newtonian viscosity and primary normal stress functions and the frequency dependence of the storage and loss moduli. Extensional flow data reported by Spearot and Metzner for two polyethylenes are well described, using parameters calculated from steady shearing measurements. Of major significance is the ability of the model to account for influences of molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, and temperature.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 14 (1970), S. 2097-2105 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A simple mechanistic picture of turbulent drag reduction is proposed, based on the recent work of Corino and Brodkey for Newtonian fluids. Possible explanations are then considered from a phenomenological viewpoint, and the applicability of the well-known dumbbell model toward this end is discussed. It is seen that the predictions of the “molecular” dumbbell model are surprisingly similar to those of the “continuum” convected Maxwell model utilized by Seyer and Metzner. Furthermore, the significance of the fluid relaxation time θ in characterizing the drag-reducing effectiveness of a polymer solution is shown to follow from a number of qualitative arguments. A correlation is proposed, closely related to the recent correlations advanced by Rodriguez, Zakin, and Patterson, and Astarita, Greco, and Nicodemo. Some new aspects of this correlation are discussed.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A continuum modification of the bead-spring (elastic dumbbell) theory of dilute solutions of linear macromolecules, recently introduced by Gordon and Schowalter, is used to obtain explicit constitutive equations for the stress and polarizability tensors. The stress constitutive equation, closely related to a semiempirical result obtained earlier by Spriggs, is superior in predictive capability to the constitutive equation obtained from the elastic dumbbell theory. Results are presented for steady shearing flow, large-amplitude oscillatory shearing, and stress relaxation following cessation of steady shearing and are compared with the results of the elastic and rigid dumbbell theories. In general, predictions are similar to those of the rigid dumbbell and thus are in qualitative agreement with experiment.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A constitutive equation, previously derived for dilute, monodisperse solutions of linear macromolecules, is extended to include polydisperse solutions. This result, which represents a coupling of continuum and molecular theory, realistically portrays the effects of molecular weight and molecular weight distribution on mechanical behavior. Intrinsic viscosity-shear rate data are well described, and with certain semiempirical modifications the equation also fits normal stress and dynamic viscosity data for slightly more concentrated solutions. Some unusual effects associated with the characterization of macromolecular degradation, in studies of turbulent drag reduction, are also explained.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 18 (1974), S. 3137-3151 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A previously derived constitutive equation, representing a blending of the molecular dumbbell theory and a continuum theory of anisotropic fluids, has been extended to the multidumbbell (Rouse-Zimm) case. The equation thus derived yields predictions equivalent to the Rouse-Zimm theory in small-amplitude dynamic shearing, with the exception that the introduction of an “effective molecular weight” as the concentration of polymer is increased is no longer required. In simple shearing flow, the theory predictions are far superior to those of the Rouse-Zimm model, yielding realistic non-Newtonian viscosity behavior, a positive primary normal stress difference, and a negative secondary normal stress difference. In stress relaxation following the cessation of steady shearing flow, the rate of relaxation is found to depend to the initial velocity gradient, but the effect is predicted to be too small to be observed experimentally in typical dilute polymer solutions. The effects of molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, and polymer-solvent interaction are explicitly accounted for, and in all cases the theory predictions are in excellent qualitative agreement with accepted experimental behavior.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 21 (1977), S. 1359-1376 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Very small amounts of high molecular weight polymers were found to eliminate vena contracta formation in flow through a circular orifice. This effect was reflected in the decreased efflux time for drainage between two fixed levels in a tank, reductions up to 30% being obtained. Aqueous solutions of seven commercially available polymers were studied, consisting of a poly(acrylic acid), two polyacrylamides of different degrees of hydrolysis, and four poly(ethylene oxides) of widely differing molecular weights. The poly(acrylic acid) and two highest molecular weight poly(ethylene oxides) each caused a sudden drop in efflux time at a “critical concentration”, which was 2, 50, and 90 wppm, respectively, for these three polymers. An explanation of this phenomenon in terms of the high Deborah number flow field existing near the orifice edge is advanced. In the case of the polyacrylamide solutions, a very gradual reduction in efflux time with increasing polymer concentration was observed, beginning at about 3 wppm. Coincident with this was the formation of a wine-glass stem or converging flow field upstream of the orifice. Such a flow field was not observed for the other solutions. It is suggested that vena contracta inhibition with polyacrylamide is simply a manifestation of solution die swell. The reason for the differing efflux time behavior between the various polymers is not known and represents a challenging problem for further study.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 20 (1980), S. 456-465 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: It has been observed that very d longchain polymers which are effective in turbulent drag reduction inhibit the formation of a vortex or air core as water drains from a tank. This paper considers the fluid mechanical velocity profile measurements have been performed. There appear to be at least two distinct mechanisms for the vortex inhibition - one involving the viscosity enhancement caused by polymer addition, and the other related to the viscoelastic properties of the polymer solutions. This second mechanism is shown to arise due to the generation of high normal stresses as the air core begins to form. The very close correlation between vortex inhibition and turbulent drag reduction suggests that normal stresses may also play an important role in this latter phenomenon.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
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