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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Oxford [u.a.] : Oxford Univ. Press
    Call number: PIK B 160-11-0256
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: Introduction ; 1. The Agenda ; 2. Pension and Retirement Income in a Global Environment ; I Retirement in Context ; Creating Modern Retirement ; 3. The History of Retirement ; 4. The Development of Public Pensions from 1889 to the 1990s ; 5. The Development of Employer Retirement Income Plans: from the Nineteenth Century to 1980 ; 6. Changing Work Patters and the Reorganization of Occupational Pensions ; 7. Gender, the Family, and the Economy ; 8. Social Solidarity ; The Economic Context ; 9. Demography and Ageing ; 10. Life-cycle Options and Preferences ; 11. Funding, Saving and Economic Growth ; II Public Retirement Plans ; State Old-Age Pension Programs ; 12. Structure and Performance of Defined Benefit Schemes ; 13. The Structure and Performance of Mandated Pensions ; 14. Actuarial-based Public Pension Systems ; Entitlements and Pensions ; 15. Citizenship, Entitlement, and Mobility ; 16. Early Retirement ; 17. Meeting Health and Long-term Care Needs in Retirement ; III Employment-Sponsored Retirement Plans ; Structure of Employer-Sponsored Pensions ; 18. Employer-Sponsored Plans: The Shift from Defined Benefit to Defined Contribution ; 19. Organized Labor and Pensions ; 20. Corporate Finance and Capital Markets ; Pension Plan Investments ; 21. Asset Liability Management ; 22. Strategic Asset Allocation for Pension Plans ; 23. Pension Fund Management and Investment Performance ; Pension Plan Governance ; 24. Regulation of pension fund governance ; 25. Regulatory Principles and Institutions ; 26. Accounting Standards for Pension Costs ; IV Individual and Household Retirement Provision ; Individual Pnesions, Insurance, and Saving ; 27. Occupational pension scheme design ; 28. Annuities, Risk, and Longevity ; 29. Personal Pensions and Markets ; Individual and Household Retirement Planning ; 30. Choice, Behavior, and Retirement Saving ; 31. Housing Wealth and Retirement Savings ; 32. The Elderly and Ethical Financial Decision-Making ; V Looking Ahead ; Prospective Models ; 33. Structure Pension Reform - privatisation - in Latin America ; 34. Private Pensions and Public Policy: the Public-Private Divide Reappraised ; 35. Unending Work ; Challenges ; 36. Productivity, Compensation, and Retirement ; 37. Poverty and Inequality ; 38. The Politics of Reform: Managing Interest Group Conflicts ; Emerging Economies ; 39. Pensions for Development and Poverty Reduction ; 40. Retirement Income Systems in Asia ; 41. Pensions in Africa ; Coda ; 42. Sustainable and Equitable Retirement in a Life Course Perspective
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXXVIII, 893 S. : graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 0199272468
    Series Statement: Oxford handbooks of political science
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Princeton [u.a.] : Princeton Univ. Press
    Call number: PIK B 160-14-0119
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: 1 Introduction ; 2 The Rise of Sovereign Wealth Funds ; 3 Rethinking the "Sovereign" in Sovereign Wealth Funds ; 4 The Virtues of Long-Term Commitment: Australia's Future Fund ; 5 The Ethics of Global Investment: Norway's Government Pension Fund ; 6 Insurer of Last Resort: Singapore's Government Investment Corporation ; 7 Legitimacy, Trade, and Global Imbalances: The China Investment Corporation ; 8 Modernity, Imitation, and Performance: The Gulf States' Funds ; 9 Conclusion: Form and Function in the Twenty-First Century
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXI, 212 S. : graph. Darst. , 24 cm
    ISBN: 9780691142296
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 3
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Call number: PIK B 040-02-0072
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 742 p.
    Edition: 1. ed.
    ISBN: 0198234104
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: nasal absorption ; absorption enhancer ; adjuvant ; polyethylene glycol ; sodium glycocholate ; sodium lauryl sulfate ; polyoxyethylene 9 lauryl ether
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A series of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) ranging in molecular weight from near 600 to over 2000 daltons was used to study the effects of three absorption enhancers (sodium glycocholate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and polyoxyethylene 9 lauryl ether) on the molecular weight permeability profile of the nasal mucosa of the rat. Molecular weight–permeability properties were studied both by following changes in the excretion of the polyethylene glycols as a function of their molecular size and by examining the nasal mucosa for morphologic changes following exposure to the PEG/enhancer mixtures. Each absorption enhancer was found to affect the mucosa and its permeability in a unique manner. At a 1% concentration, sodium glycocholate only slightly affects tissue morphology and does not significantly alter the molecular weight permeability profile of the mucosa. In contrast, 1% sodium lauryl sulfate causes severe alteration of the mucosa and also greatly increases the absorption of both the PEG 600 and the PEG 2000 oligomers. Polyoxyethylene 9 lauryl ether was found to exert its action in a concentration-dependent manner. At a concentration of 0.1%, few changes were seen in either mucosal integrity or permeability. At a 1% concentration, however, a significant alteration in the structure of the mucosal tissues as well as a profound increase in the permeability of the mucosa to the PEGs was observed. Correlation of mucosal integrity with the effectiveness of an enhancer indicates that some of these compounds appear to be acting by altering the structure of the mucosa. Others, which appear to exert a less damaging effect on the mucosal cells themselves, achieve their greatest absorption enhancement when changes in cell-to-cell adhesion in the mucosa are observed. These results indicate that the paracellular routes may play an important role in large molecule absorption through the nasal mucosa.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: polyethylene glycol ; nasal absorption ; gastrointestinal absorption ; molecular weight-dependent absorption ; molecular weight cutoff ; permeability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) 600,1000, and 2000 were used to study the molecular weight permeability dependence in the rat nasal and gastrointestinal mucosa. Absorption of the PEGs was measured by following their urinary excretion over a 6-hr collection period. HPLC methods were used to separate and quantitate the individual oligomeric species present in the PEG samples. The permeabilities of both the gastrointestinal and the nasal mucosae exhibited similar molecular weight dependencies. The steepest absorption dependence for both mucosae occurs with the oligomers of PEG 600, where the extent of absorption decreases from approximately 60% to near 30% over a molecular weight range of less than 300 daltons. Differences in the absorption characteristics between the two sites appear in the molecular weight range spanned by PEG 1000. For these oligomers, the mean absorption from the nasal cavity is approximately 14%, while that from the gastrointestinal tract is only 9%. For PEG 2000, mean absorption decreases to 4% following intranasal application and below 2% following gastrointestinal administration. Within the PEG 1000 and 2000 samples, however, very little molecular weight dependency is seen among the oligomers. In the range studied, a distinct molecular weight cutoff was not apparent at either site.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: penetration enhancer ; n-decylmethyl sulfoxide ; transdermal delivery ; bioactive peptide ; enkephalin ; metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the effects of the nonionic surfactant, n-decylmethyl sulfoxide (NDMS), pH, and inhibitors on the metabolism and the permeation of amino acids, dipeptides, and the pentapeptide enkephalin, through hairless mouse skin. An HPLC gradient method was developed to identify the possible peptide and amino acid metabolites of leucine-enkephalin. NDMS increased the permeability of all amino acids and peptides tested. At neural pH, the enzyme activity within the skin was such that no flux of leucine-enkephalin (YGGFL) was observed and the donor cell concentration of YGGFL decreased rapidly. The major cleavage occurred at the Tyr-Gly bond. At pH 5.0 the metabolic activity was reduced significantly and a substantial flux of YGGFL was observed. Enzymatically stable YGGFL analogues, Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-Leu (YDAGFL) and its amide, exhibited significant fluxes even at neutral pH in the presence of NDMS, but with substantial metabolism. YDAGFL amide was more stable to metabolism than YDAGFL. The rates of metabolism of the peptides in the skin homogenates were in the order: FL.〉〉YGGFL 〉 GFL 〉 GGFL 〉〉 YG, YGG 〉〉 YDAGFL amide. In the skin homogenates puromycin and amastatin showed the highest inhibitory effects, while FL and GFL were only slightly active. However, in the skin diffusion experiments, FL allowed the highest amount of intact parent compound to permeate, making it the most potent inhibitor. These results show that the complex proteolytic enzyme activities occurring during skin permeation are different from those in skin homogenates and that a combination of enhancer, pH adjustment, and inhibitors can increase the transdermal delivery of peptides.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2009-09-14
    Type: paper
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-05-16
    Type: paper
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-11-05
    Keywords: peer-reviewed
    Type: paper
    Format: application/pdf
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